BACTERIOLOGICAL WARFARE.

A MAJOR THREAT TO NORTH AMERICA.

WHAT YOU AND YOUR FAMILY CAN DO

DEFENSIVELY BEFORE and AFTER.

A CIVIL DEFENSE MANUAL

by

Larry Wayne Harris, R.M.

 


WARNING!

Self-medication under circumstances where a physician's care is available is not only illegal, it is extremely dangerous. The

author and the publisher of this book do not recommend or endorse self-medication or the practice of medicine without a

license in any way, shape, or form. The responsibility for any such activity is entirely that of the reader. Seek professional

medical help if there is any way to obtain it.


COPYRIGHT 1995

BY LARRY WAYNE HARRIS, Registered Microbiologist ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Edited / condensed by:

Richard L. Finke

e-mail: ricfinke@greenapple.com

Ric's disclaimer:

The reader should Carefully weigh the importance of this information and be alert to take the appropriate defensive

actions. I can vouch only for the medical characteristics of the biological agents discussed in this report. All other

information, claims, opinions and statements are strictly the author's responsibility. RF


PREFACE

In September 199 1, I re-entered The Ohio State University and started taking courses in advanced microbiology, in preparation for taking my National Registry of Microbiologist Certification Exam. I soon entered into a clique of nontraditional students, whose average age was around 40. In that clique was a delightful lady known by the name of Miriam Arif. We soon became close friends. Miriam was from Iraq, and was here studying microbiology. She had an unusual background. One of her very close relatives, General Arif was a President of Iraq. In April, 1966, He was killed in a helicopter accident (I later learned the General was actually her father). There was a long succession of military coups and now Saddam Hussein and the Republican Guard are in power. In these coups, her family had not faired well. She said that several members of her family had been hung. And at the present time, she felt it safer for her to be here in America, until she could do something that would make her famous back in her home country of Iraq. In February, 1993, 1 had arrived early in order to get a parking spot in the rapidly filling student parking lots, and was having coffee in the small vending area in the bottom of the building where the Med-Tech. courses were taught. The vending area was deserted except for Miriam Arif and myself. I will never forget the way her face and eyes looked that morning. They were very tired and glossy. I have little doubt that she had not gotten any sleep since the World Trade Center building was bombed. This was the Monday after. She must have thought that her arrest was imminent, for the whole time she was rambling on. It was as if she was in a daze. She was silent for a few minutes then she said, "Larry, you are a dear and trusted friend, and what I am going to tell you in the next few minutes you can use to protect yourself and a few friends. When it is my time to act, I do not want your death to be on my conscience. You obviously do not know the danger you face concerning the emergence of Biological Warfare as a major threat to the United States." She went on to state that nearly all of the emerging countries: Libya, Iran, Iraq, Syria, North Korea, etc., were actively pursuing a germ warfare program, and scraping their nuclear programs. There are two reasons for this shift. The first being complexity & cost for the acquisition of a sufficient nuclear stockpile to be meaningful. The second reason is that BW is antipersonnel warfare, but not anti-materiel warfare, in that housing, buildings, factories, and other structures remain intact and can be made useful in a short time. I asked her if she had actually seen any of Iraq's germ warfare facilities. To this she gave a resounding,"Yes." She went on to state that Iraq uses the plain-Jane approach, in that Iraq has a very large stockpile of biological agents on hand in the form of special bombs, and is developing rockets to spread the infection over a very large area. They have two separate areas of biological operations, one foreign and one regional. The ones that are regional have all the facilities located at small air strips around the country that are deliberately designed not to draw much attention. These airstrips will not handle large to medium class aircraft. In fact they are designed around a single class of aircraft. These aircraft art single engine high wing turboprop's that can be used for crop dusting. The regional Biological operations would take only a couple of days to get into operation if you are using Anthrax, or a couple of weeks if you are using Plague. The production equipment located at these Facilities is kept empty so that it can be explained away as holding tanks for agricultural spray products, if they were ever questioned from abroad as to their purpose. The finished culture fluid flows into a refrigerated tank for holding before it is transferred to the aircraft just before the mission. She further stated that these aircraft have exceptionally long range and that only one aircraft is located at each facility. If that aircraft were to be lost, a replacement aircraft could be flown in from another facility. This keeps every thing small and very difficult to detect. I asked her why we didn't see any Germ Warfare being waged during the Gulf war.

To this she responded, "Iraq thought that the multinational force would respond with Nuclear Weapons." I inquired further, You stated that I and the people of North America are in grave danger of Biological Agents being used against us. Would you care to elaborate on that? To this, she replied, "A few hours ago a band of fanatics blew up the World Trade Center. I am sure that my beloved Iraq did not do this thing. For when payback comes, I am sure we will demand at least one American life for every one of my country that you Butchered. We would not settle for some silly old building." I asked her if she knew how such an attack would be carried out. To this she responded, "Don t be silly, of course I know! The vessel of choice would be a metal spray can (stainless steel). You know, like the one you use to spray your garden and exterminators use to spray bug spray. The one that has the little air pump in the middle that you pump up when you, are ready to spray. To this you would add your culture. Following an appropriate amount of time, the batch is ready. You then insert the spray tank's air pump, pump up the sprayer and you are ready." I then asked her, what the most likely targets would be. To this she replied, "For one thing, it will not be just a target, but many (hundreds of) targets simultaneously across the country. The prime of these would be the subway systems. Who would notice another maintenance man down there spraying for bugs? Other inviting targets would be the air ducts of large office buildings. Or, say, a large gathering of people like at a stadium, or just sticking it out of the side of a budding over those crowded streets of many cities. Who is going to notice a little mist coming from some building? Several cells (each cell has ten men, and one woman to act as a carrier) will be using aircraft venturi like the ones that are used to drive the vacuum instruments on airplanes. They are easily obtained mail order in this country. These will be mounted underneath cars.

The spray tank will be in the car with the tubing going to the venturi (which acts like a carburetor). When the car is going 60 miles per hour one simply opens the valve and a fog of death will be coming out from behind the car. Other cells will be using these same venturi mounted on light aircraft to attack whole cities at a time." I asked her how she would get her culture (bacteria)? To this Miriam replied that it is very easy for a woman to hide a small sealed vial of dehydrated culture vaginally and get it into North America. "What are they going to do?" She continued, "Take every woman entering the country, have some little room, say in the airport, and make them lay down on a table with their feet up in stirrups and have some one looking up her privates? I think not." I then asked her, "Why not use something that she could obtain in this country without going through all that?' To this, she replied, "That is where the real irony is, for you see, Iraq bought all of the dehydrated vials from companies right here in the United States, who shipped them to Iraq, and those same vials are the ones that Iraqi women have been bringing back into this country to be used against this country." Miriam said that she herself had made several trips back and forth between Iraq and the United States, and every time that she came to America she was carrying a vial inside her as well.

(Ed. Note, Miriam has been apprehended doing just this).

I then asked her, "What are the microbes of choice?' To this she responded, 'Plague and Anthrax are the bacteria of choice. For you see, plague is easy to work with. We take the proper amount and kind of antibiotic and then we are fairly safe. Once you are finished, you can very easily clean up any spills with disinfectant. Any you miss will be dead in a couple of days. Anthrax would be used by specially trained cells for attacks on big cities. These cells have to be extremely careful, thus requiring a lot of advanced training. If you got some on your clothes and happened to inhale it several years later, it could kill you. So they will have to strip, thoroughly shower, and leave all articles of clothing that were worn during the attack behind. The only two other bacteria that were considered was Cholera and Typhoid fever but these usually do not kill. They only inconvenience people for a few days." I then asked her when she thought these attacks would begin. To this she responded, "Some time with in the next few years." Miriam said that she personally knew cells training to attack the Olympic Games when they are held. Also, the attacks are centered on three Muslim holy days that are coming up in the next few years, starting in July, 1997. One thing is certain, before the year 2001 this country's population will be reduced to less than fifty million. Miriam stated that she had no problem telling me all of this because 'no one will ever believe you." The door to the elevator opened just then and several students walked out. Miriam quickly entered the same elevator before the doors could close and was gone.

That afternoon I started a barrage of phone calls to the FBI, the CDC, and just about every one that I knew to call. Miriam was right. No one cared. Every bureaucrat that I called simply was not interested. I called the CDC back and after an afternoon of phone tag I finally was transferred to Fort Collins, vector division. I told them what Miriam had told me, and they responded that they thought I had been watching too many science fiction movies, and not to worry about it. I asked them if they had a contingency plan if something like this ever occurred. They said that they did, so I asked them if they would send me a copy.

They said that they would. But after a couple of weeks nothing had arrived. I called them back, and after several weeks and no contingency plan, I put them on the spot and said that if there is such a plan why do you not send it to me, and if there is no plan so state. Finally the CDC stated that in 1972 all biological civil defense had been scrapped. There was no contingency plan. The country was wide open. I just about flipped. They said that if I were a microbiologist and so concerned, why don't I go and write my own Civil Defense manual and leave the CDC alone. A couple of days later my curiosity and frustration had been aroused enough to check out some of the things that Miriam had said. I first went to the biological science building and sought out one of the professors who had some experience with this type of production. He gave me several papers that verified some of the things Miriam had said regarding production operation. I next went to the Biological Science Library and got as much information on the plague as they had. I learned from the librarian that a visiting microbiologist, who had written several papers on the dangers of Germ Warfare, would be giving a lecture on his findings. In March, 1993, 1 attended the lecture put on by the visiting Microbiologist. After he had finished discussing his findings and had taken all the questions from the audience, I went forward and offered to buy him coffee in the small coffee shop across from the biological science library, and he accepted. I raised the question, "What is the possibility of germ warfare becoming a threat to North America?" And if germ warfare is within the possibility of being acquired by a highly motivated and intelligent organization, why have we not seen it being used? His response was that there is no cut and dried answer to this question!

An explanation goes something like this: In the 1940's, when we first began to look into the possibilities of using Germ Warfare, there were few, if any, antimicrobial drugs. So we had no way of really protecting our own troops. It was not until the later 1960's, when adequate antimicrobials had been developed, that the possibility of using Biological Warfare became a reality.

However, about that time, it became apparent that just about any small country that could afford a laboratory could develop offensive weapons. At this point, The US Government started an active program of demonization of all aspects of Biological warfare. This included co-sponsoring the production of several movies: The Omega Man, the Virus, the Andromeda Strain, and others, in an effort to scare the hell out of the public. In 1972, this resulted in the United States signing the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological and Toxin Weapons and on their destruction.

The US Government went on to glamorize those countries that possessed nuclear weapons, referring to it as the "Nuclear Club." The strategy worked. Numerous small countries invested large portions of their defense budgets toward obtaining nuclear power. However, the Iraqi war shocked many of these small countries into reality! They simply cannot afford to go nuclear. However, they can afford Bacteriological & Biotoxin weapons. The lecturer stated very clearly that in the future we can almost certainly expect Biological weapons to be used by various terrorist organizations. This makes it imperative that the citizens of North America obtain the necessary knowledge & skills to protect themselves against this emerging threat. Thus, the following book has been written to provide a source of information on aspects of biology having terrorist applications and on the types of biological agents which might be used against us, and how to defend against them.

 


CHAPTER I

Biological warfare is the military use of living organisms or their toxic products to cause death, disability, or damage to man, his domestic animals, or crops. Biological warfare agents include living organisms or their toxic products. The term "Germ Warfare" or "bacteriological warfare" is preferred to" biological warfare" because it refers only to the use of bacteria. The technical procedures and equipment necessary for the recovery of toxic products produced by microorganisms is simply beyond the ability of most small countries and offers little advantage over living bacteria. From the earliest time man has been continually fighting a defensive battle against micro-organisms (in the form of diseases) and has been able to survive through the development of immunity, improvement in sanitation and nutrition, and the progress of medical science. The use of microorganisms as BW agents is simply a military adaptation of naturally occurring organisms. The suffering caused by most diseases is no greater than that caused by severe injuries by gun fire, and the chances of complete recovery from infectious diseases are usually much greater than from injuries caused from other types of warfare.

Several countries are said to be genetically engineering viruses for Biological warfare. It has been asserted by leading scientists that new horrible diseases will be unleashed if BW occurs. During the last few years medical science has been fighting an ever increasing number of allegedly lab-created genetically "altered" viruses such as AIDS. These, by the very nature of their ability to continuously mutate, have resisted any kind of conventional medical treatment. According to sources, (ed. note, uncorroborated) AIDS was created in military bio-labs for this purpose, and, only the military has the antidote. The individual making this assertion stated that he had numerous documents smuggled out of Wackenhut Laboratories (under CIA contract) to confirm this fact. For several weeks this individual communicated with a scientist who not only helped create these viruses, but owned a California based corporation (Hercules Research Corporation) which developed them under contract for military applications. This individual claimed he had files containing transcripts of those conversations and back-up documents. Any microbiologist familiar with today's technology knows the capabilities of these genetically altered, fast mutating viruses. They are certainly not naturally occurring and are far more lethal and less expensive to produce. This individual found out that back in the early 1980's some of this technology was sold to Iraq under the Reagan/Bush administrations. The virus mutates and destroys the body's T-Cells, making it practically impossible to be treated in advance or even treated after infection since the body's immune system is the target. Most of these lab-created viruses attack the immune system first or the specific DNA of the individual.

The following is from research documents smuggled out of Wackenhut laboratories: Twenty African prostitutes in Nairobi and Gambia, West Africa were used as research subjects by collaborating American, British and Japanese scientist to test the U. S. Government's antidote against the 'lab-created" HIV (AIDS) virus. The test was a huge success and all twenty of the women NEVER contracted the HIV virus after being exposed consistently for five years. The reason? Their Cytotoxic T- Lymphocytes (CTL's) or T- Cells were raised to extremely high levels by the injected antidote. The following are excerpts from one of these documents: "...the sera of the prostitutes showed that the women were generating highly specific cytotoxic T - Lymphocyte (CTL) responses to both HIV- I and HIV-2 peptides. The HIV-specific CTLs were studied utilizing peptides epitopes which are bound in MHC (major histocompatibility complex) molecules on the surface of the infected cells and presented to the T-Cell receptors of the CTL........... The finding of HIV - specific CTL, able to kill virus- infected cells, in uninfected but repeatedly HIV - exposed women, indicated that the PCR serum developed antibodies in the subjects over a three month period. The protective immunity developed against HIV in all 20 women emphasized the vaccine's ability to utilize cytotoxic T - lymphocytes to retain CD - 4 cell counts above 500 with no symptomatic viremic responses over a five - year period..." A study group of HIV - infected mothers in Nairobi were also given the serum and gave birth to HIV -free babies. And a sub group of HIV - exposed U. S. men were given the vaccine and have shown no signs or symptoms of "any" disease for over five years.

In other words, not only has biological technology been created to destroy an individual's immune system, as implied by rampant emerging "new" diseases in targeted areas world - wide, but technology exists today in government sponsored laboratories to "increase" the immune system 1000% against "lab created" viruses. The HIV (AIDS) virus approaches a RACO (Race Specific Organism), in that it was designed to kill only Negro's. The HIV virus was placed into serum (some say smallpox) and inoculated into Negro's for their (genocidal) removal from Africa. The HIV virus was designed to use an intermediate bacterial carrier, that was present in the Negro's body but not present in Caucasians. This strategy has been extremely effective and by some estimates the Negro population of Africa will soon be reduced to below 5 million.

Because naturally occurring epidemics have caused tremendous havoc to mankind in the past, it has been asserted frequently that artificially induced epidemics could be produced in the future by attack with various biological agents. However, since epidemics tend to spread slowly, they probably can be effectively controlled or prevented by modern sanitation, hygiene, quarantine, immunization, or treatment measures; hence, widespread explosive epidemics are not expected to result from BW attacks against highly civilized populations unless there has been severe disruption of medical and sanitary facilities, and a massive attack carried out simultaneously across the country. It is true that BW attacks the noncombatant populations as well as the armed forces; this is equally true of attack on a city by aircraft with high explosives or by artillery shells. Destruction or incapacitation of a significant portion of civilian personnel in a given situation also might be a determining factor. Suppose if the target was a financial hub, like Wall Street (recently the Stock Market had an outbreak of Tuberculosis, and now every broker that trades on the stock exchange must be tested) or The World Trade Center. In such a case, victory might be achieve with a minimum sacrifice of human life by either side. In any event, cities, factories, and homes, and other attributes of civilization would not be destroyed, and rehabilitation would be much more easily effected than after conventional bombing attacks.

Although germ warfare has never been used as a significant weapon of war, there is factual evidence that they have been used in some form since early times. See I Sam. 5. In the middle ages war parties dropped plague-ridden corpses into wells of their enemy. This type of warfare was practiced particularly in desert warfare where wells were of strategic importance and easily contaminated. During the French and Indian War, in 1763, the British infected the Indians with smallpox by giving them blankets and handkerchiefs taken from infected patients. Approximately 95% of the Indians that were exposed died of the disease. In World War I, German agents inoculated horses and cattle shipped from the United States to the Allies with disease-producing bacteria. The Germans also used glanders against the Rumanian Cavalry. In 1940, claims were made by the Chinese that Japanese planes had dropped plague-infected fleas wrapped in little cotton bags containing grain. It was assumed that their purpose was to initiate an epidemic of plague by utilizing their natural vectors. In the past, widespread natural disease epidemics have decimated the populations of various areas and in many wars, infection and disease have caused more casualties than have weapons.

Since BW has never been used on a major scale, no definite evaluation can be made of its effectiveness as a weapon of war. The fact that very little is known of the potential tactical or strategical value of BW in modem warfare should not lead to an underestimation of its possibilities. It has been fairly well established that BW agents can be produced on a scale not considered possible in the past. Any small nation having modern and adequate research facilities could produce BW agents on a small scale. The cost of the development of large-scale BW would be much less than that incident to some other weapons of war. It is also possible that new and effective methods for artificial dissemination of disease-producing agents may be developed. For these reasons, BW must be assumed to present a potentially dangerous form of attack. BW would be especially attractive for the middle-eastern countries, whose agenda includes terrorism to achieve their goals. It would not be surprising, that within the next decade many parts of the North American continent may be turned into disease infested hell holes. Some basic knowledge of the principles of biology and of the properties of biological agents is essential for the appreciation of their military significance, so that preparations can be made by, the citizens of North America and render terrorist BW attacks as ineffective as possible when (not if) they occur.

There are five general bacteriological groups, because they appear to have military significance, that have been classed as BW agents. We will consider only micro-organisms, bacteria & viruses because these are the ones that can cause the greatest harm and the ones that would almost certainly be chosen by groups bent on terrorism. Miriam Arif stated that only Bacteria was planed to be used against the United States, so that Iraq could control its deployment. A designer virus on the other hand is too unpredictable. She stated that Iraq had done extensive research in order to design a RACO that would kill only Caucasians and not Iraqis. They could not find a single intermediate bacterial carrier that Caucasians had and not Iraqis. Besides, Anthrax and the Plague could so very easily be isolated from nature, and were more deadly than an atomic bomb and with some antibiotics, their agents would not get the disease. They love the sweet irony of buying it from the Americans, and then using it on them. .


CHAPTER 2

2.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF MICRO-ORGANISMS

Micro-organisms are minute living organisms, usually microscopic (that is, too small to be seen by the unaided eye). When magnified 500 to 1000 times by the microscope, each micro-organism is found to be composed of a single cell or a group of associated cells, each of which is capable of carrying on all the functions of life, including growth and reproduction. Lacking a digestive tract, the micro-organism acquires food in soluble form through the moist membrane which surrounds the cell contents. Not possessing organs of sight, it does not differentiate light and darkness by the visual method. Having no heat regulating system it assumes the temperature of its surroundings. Micro-organisms are so small that the unit applied in their measurement is the micro, which is equivalent to 0.001 millimeter or approximately 1/25,000 of an inch. Micro-organisms capable of producing disease are called pathogens. Most of the pathogens are parasites, since they five in, on, or with some other living host at whose expense they obtain food and shelter. Organisms which multiply in dead rather than in living matter are called saprophytes. While most of these are harmless, some produce poisonous products which cause disease. Examples of some of these harmful saprophytes are the bacteria which cause tetanus, producing their poison in macerated, devitalized tissue, and those which cause botulism manufacturing their toxin in food outside of the body. Most micro-organisms are nonpathogenic, and many are beneficial to animal and plant fife. From the secretions of certain micro-organisms some of the most powerful antibiotics, such as chloromycetin, penicillin, and streptomycin, have been obtained.

Micro-organisms are important in the preparation of dairy products and in the fermentation industry (for example, rising of bread and production of vinegar and alcoholic beverages). Sod fertility is largely dependent upon their activity in decomposing dead matter and releasing the elements needed for the growth of plants. Micro-organisms are universally distributed in the air, water, and soil. Soil organisms are found in all surfaces exposed to dirt and dust, and every cubic foot of topsoil provides the natural home for billions of them. The skin, hair, nose, mouth, and digestive tract of man and animals harbor a considerable variety of micro-organisms in large numbers. However, the pathogenic, or disease-producing organisms of man, animals, and plants, with very few exceptions, usually do not live long or grow when in the absence of a suitable host, and favorable environmental conditions are necessary for survival.

 

2.2 GROWTH AND SURVIVAL

Numerous factors influence the growth of microorganisms, which are more dependent on a delicately adjusted environment than are higher forms of life. Some of their requirements are: MOISTURE. A plentiful supply of water is essential, as this amounts to about nine-tenths of the cellular substance, and is the vehicle by means of which soluble food is made available by diffusion through the cell wall. It also is required in the immediate surroundings to prevent drying of the organism; even a small decrease may interfere with normal functions and cause death. However, it is possible to keep even quite delicate organism alive by lyophilization, which is a combined process of quick freezing and drying at very low temperatures.

FOOD. Food is required to supply building material and energy. Micro-organisms in general can utilize a wide variety of substances, including proteins, sugars, minerals, salts, and vitamins, but the requirements of different species are not the same, either in the kinds of food or in their proportions. As mentioned previously, the parasites normally feed on living plants or animals but, under favorable conditions, some will grow in foodstuffs or artificial media- the saprophytes require dead or decaying organic matter. The viruses and rickettsiae will grow only in the presence of living host cells; thus they are obligate parasites.

OXYGEN. As with higher forms of fife, all micro-organisms require oxygen to live, but they may differ markedly in respect to the source from which they obtain it. Those which grow only in the presence of free oxygen are called obligate aerobes, while those which grow only in the absence of free oxygen are termed obligate anaerobes and obtain their oxygen in the combined form from various chemical compounds. Lying between these two extremes are the facultative aerobes, which are fundamentally anaerobes but can grow in the presence of free oxygen, and the facultative anaerobes, which are essentially aerobes but can wgrow in the absence of free oxygen. Most of the pathogenic micro-organisms are facultative because they may obtain their oxygen in either form. In either case, the supply of oxygen is essential to provide energy and to aid in the formation of new cellular material.

TEMPERATURE. Temperature is an important factor, each species of organism developing most abundantly at a particular or optimum temperature range. Pathogens of warm-blooded animals develop best in the narrow temperature ranges common to these animals. At variations either below or above this range, the organism functions progressively less effectively until temperatures are reached at which growth no longer occurs. High temperatures are fatal, but survival often occurs at low temperatures. Climatic conditions might be decisive factors in determining whether certain micro-organisms could be used in desert or arctic warfare.

LIGHT. Most micro-organisms do not require light for growth. They are destroyed by prolonged direct exposure to ultraviolet rays from the sun or from artificial sources. Consequently growth occurs best in an environment protected from direct sunlight.

REACTION OF MEDIUM. In general most micro-organisms associated with animal life grow best in neutral or slightly alkaline surroundings. Those associated with plant life often prefer a slightly acid environment. Growth is inhibited by highly acid or highly alkaline surroundings.

TIME. When micro-organisms are placed in a new environment, there is a period of adjustment or lag phase in which the number of cells does not increase appreciably. If all essential factors are favorable and there is no opposition from the host, an insignificant number organisms may develop within a few hours, or at most, days, into numbers almost beyond comprehension.

ENCAPSULATION. The formation of capsules, a process known as encapsulation, is a property of many bacteria which may favor their survival. The capsule is also associated with variety of pathogenic bacteria. For example, pneumococci that are encapsulated are highly virulent whereas when they have no capsule they are relatively avirulent. Anthrax bacilli are almost always found to be encapsulated when observed in preparations made from animal tissues. The capsule appears to function as a bacterial defense against the activity of phagocytic cells of the body. The capsule apparently originates from the outer layer of the cell membrane and consists of a thick, colorless (translucent) outer wall of gelatinous (protein), gummy (polysaccharide), or fatty material. There is good reason to believe that capsule formation may be stimulated by unfavorable environmental conditions such as the resistance of an infected host.

SPORULATION. Another protective mechanism favorable to survival among bacteria is sporulation, which leads to the formation of heavy walled bodies called spores. Sporulation is not necessarily a response to unfavorable conditions, since spores are often formed early in the life of a culture while conditions are wholly favorable to continued vegetative activity. Bacterial spores are more resistant to injurious or unfavorable influences (such as starvation, high and low temperatures, germicidal chemicals, drying, and oxidation) than the growing or vegetative forms. When the spore has matured, the surrounding vegetative form disintegrates. The resistance spores thus formed may remain dormant for years without food or water, and under extreme range of temperatures, and again develop into an actively growing vegetative cell when conditions become favorable. Spore formation is not a method of multiplication in the bacteria, for each vegetative cell forms only a single spore wand each spore germinates into a single vegetative cell. Therefore, it is considered a means for the perpetuation of the organism. Since the rate of growth of certain species is accelerated after spore formation, the .process may serve to rejuvenate the activities of the bacterial cell. In higher fungi, such as molds and mushrooms, spore formation, either sexual or asexual is the normal method of reproduction.

 

2.3 REPRODUCTION

Reproduction may be sexual or asexual, depending on the micro-organism, but the asexual process is the more common.

ASEXUAL. Asexual reproduction may occur by by fission, by budding, or sporulation. In binary fission, the cell divides into two equal and identical parts, each of which develops into a new organism. In budding, a small portion of the parent cell is pinched off and develops into a new, actively growing individual. In fungal sporulation special cells are set aside for reproduction. The bacteria reproduce by asexual binary fission; the yeasts, which belong to the fungi, reproduce sometimes by asexual by fission but usually by budding or by sexual spore formation. The higher fungi usually reproduce by sporulation. Protozoa may reproduce by fission, but sexual reproduction is common in certain species.

SEXUAL. Sexual methods of reproduction are often encountered among micro-organisms. These involve copulation of two cells with interchange of cellular contents, usually resulting in the formation of spores of various types. Sexual reproduction is known to occur among the fungi and protozoa, although it is often difficult to identify the cells as male or female.

 

2.4 IDENTIFICATION

The methods involved in the identification of most microorganisms are difficult and time-consuming and usually are dependent upon obtaining living organisms. As organisms exhibit preference for environments in which they will grow (that is, the type of material required for their survival), information as to the source of the organism is of value in establishing its identity. Usually, such information will not be immediately available under the conditions of biological warfare. Laboratory procedures are used to establish or confirm the identity of a microorganism. A few of these methods are described below.

SAMPLING. Rapid identification of a micro-organism used as a BW agent is dependent upon sampling procedures capable of obtaining a large number of viable organisms relatively free from interfering materials or other organisms. Methods of collecting suspected material vary with its nature and source, that is, living or dead tissue, body secretions, sod, air, water, surfaces of all kinds, and with methods of its release, such as aerosols from various spraying devices or bombs. If the agent is released as an aerosol (cloud or spray), every effort should be made to obtain an air sample as near the point of release as possible. The number as well as the viability of the organisms released in an aerosol will decrease progressively with the passage of time and with increasing distance from the point of release outward. Also the original aerosol is relatively uncontaminated, since there are few naturally occurring organisms in the air. Samples of vegetation, water, soil, and other materials on which the agent has fallen may be of value in aiding or helping confirm the identity of the agent even though the samples contain interfering contamination and yield a smaller number of organisms than are found in the original aerosol. Such samples should be taken if conditions or other factors make it impossible to obtain air samples of the original aerosol or if there is evidence that a poorly representative sample might have been taken. These samples should be taken as soon after release and as near the point of release as possible.

Air samples may be obtained by drawing the air through a simple coffee filter, or bubblers, by bringing the air in contact with the surface of nutrient media, or by using special filtering devices. vegetation, water, and soil samples are obtained by placing portions of each in sterile containers. Samples from other contaminated surfaces may be obtained by rubbing the surface with a sterile cotton swab and placed in a sterile capped container. The samples are then sent, by the fastest method available, to the nearest designated laboratory for identification.

MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION. Micro-organisms (except viruses and rickettsiae) in smears or suspensions of suspected material may be examined and counted under a microscope for identification purposes. Such examinations may be aided by staining the micro-organisms with dyes, which bring into sharper detail the shape, relative size, and presence of spores, capsules, or flagella of certain micro-organisms which otherwise might not be noted. A very important staining procedure is the Gram method. In this process the specimens are first stained, then exposed to a decolonizing fluid, and subsequently counter stained. Organisms retaining the primary stain are called gram positive, and those stained by the secondary stain are grain-negative.

CULTURE. Micro-organisms may be cultivated by placing samples of them in sterile containers holding solid or liquid nutrient media and incubating them at temperatures suitable for growth for specific lengths of time. Organisms multiplying on solid media form visible masses or colonies whose surface appearance, shape, and color help in their identification. In liquid media, identification of the micro-organism is aided by determining what kinds of food are required for its growth and what substances it produces.

TESTS. Micro-organisms may be identified biochemically by cultivation of them in certain media, observation of the by-products or their growth, and determination of what materials they consume. By the addition of certain chemical compounds to the media, it is possible also to differentiate between different kinds of micro-organisms by unequally influencing their growth. Biological tests are also practicable for identifying many micro-organisms. Suitable animals are injected with the suspected organism, and clinical or postmortem observations of pathological changes are made. When a certain kind of organism is under suspicion, it may be inoculated into animals which have been immunized against it and into an equal number of non-immunized animals; if the suspicion is correct, the non-immunized animals will develop the disease, while the immunized animals will not. A third method of identification is by serological testing. This is based upon the occurrence in all living cells of specific protein substances known as antigens which, when introduced into the blood or tissue of a foreign animal body, induce the formation of specifically reacting antagonistic substances known as antibodies. Since antibodies usually appear in the blood serum, which is then used in testing for specific antigens, these antigens-antibody reactions are known as serological reactions. It is possible with serological reactions to distinguish between different but closely related organisms, thus aiding in the diagnosing of an infectious disease.

 

2.5 INHIBITION AND DESTRUCTION.

The term "inhibition" is used to indicate arrest in growth or multiplication (reproduction), while destruction refers to death; sterilization is synonymous with destruction. These phenomena may be brought about by physical, chemical, or biological means.

TEMPERATURE. High temperatures are effective in destroying micro-organisms. Higher temperatures or longer exposures are required when dry heat is used than when moist heat is used. Direct exposure to flame and to steam under pressure are reliable for sterilizing materials which are not harmed by these methods. Boiling water or flowing steam are effective when resistant species or spores are absent. Some delicate organisms, however, do not survive even small temperature fluctuations of their environment. On the other hand, rapid lowering of the temperature to sub-freezing accompanied by quick-drying tends to preserve the life of many micro-organisms, and they survive in a state of suspended animation.

DESICCATION. Desiccation, or drying, is one of the oldest measures used to prevent spoilage of food by micro-organisms, examples being the production of jerked beef, prunes, powdered milk and eggs, and other dehydrated foods. In the absence of moisture, food cannot diffuse through the cell membrane, and growth of the organism ceases. Vegetative organisms are particularly susceptible to drying, but spores are practically unharmed. Drying may reduce the number of living organisms but cannot be relied upon for their complete destruction.

STARVATION. Growth can be inhibited and sometimes and sometimes death induced when essential food materials are removed or rendered unavailable. All microorganisms require oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen in some form; if any one of these elements is limited or converted to an unusable form, the micro-organism cannot develop and may eventually die. Varying amounts of other materials too numerous to name in this text also are essential, depending on the kind of organism involved. Spores, as opposed to vegetative forms, can remain dormant for long periods without food; hence spores may not be killed by starvation, but their germination may be prevented.

LIGHT. Ultraviolet rays from the sun or artificial sources quickly destroy exposed micro-organisms, but these rays have low penetrating powers and may be ineffective against microbes protected by thin liquid or dust films, rough surfaces, or opaque liquids.

FILTRATION. Micro-organisms can be removed from air and liquids by various filtering devices. The efficiency of filtering processes depends not only on the kind of filter used but also upon such factors as particle size and number of organisms present, electrostatic charge, and rapidity of filtration. The larger organisms may be removed by filtration through asbestos pads, collodion, or other specially prepared membranes, filter paper, or unglazed porcelain, the pore sizes of which are too small to permit passage of the micro-organisms. Some micro-organisms, such as viruses, are so small that they cannot be removed by or bacterial filters but require special filtration devices. Gases such as air, containing dust like suspensions of micro-organisms, can be effectively filtered through thick layers of cotton batting or other materials.

OSMOSIS. The diffusion of a liquid through a semipermeable membrane that separates two miscible solutions is known as osmosis. Although the diffusion may proceed in both directions, the flow of solvent is greater from the more dilute to the more concentrated solution. This diffusion tends to equalize the concentration of the two solutions. Osmotic pressure is the increased pressure which develops in the more highly concentrated solution. Living cells, including micro-organism, all have semipermeable cell membranes; hence when they are placed in high sugar or salt concentrations, the osmotic process removes water from them, resulting in inhibition of growth or destruction. Common applications of this principle are the use of high concentrations of sugar to preserve foods, such as jams and jellies, and the soaking of meat in brine. However, these measures are not effective for destroying spores.

 

2.6 GENERAL, CHEMICAL.

Many chemical compounds are used to destroy or inhibit the growth of micro-organisms. Disinfectants are materials such as germicides and bactericides, which destroy pathogenic micro-organisms. Antiseptics are substances which inhibit the growth and development of micro-organisms, but do not necessarily destroy them. Some chemicals are powerful disinfectants, while others are only inhibitors. Among the common disinfectant and antiseptic preparations are mercuric chloride, silver nitrate, tincture of iodine, chlorine, phenol, cresol, formaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, alcohol, hypochlorites, and acids or alkalies. The vapors of propylene glycol, triethylene glycol and ethylene oxide are also effective disinfectants and decontaminate. Proper concentration, temperature, and length of exposure are critical factors in the employment of all these materials.

CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS. These are chemical compounds, used in the treatment of disease, which affect the causative micro-organism unfavorably without markedly injuring the patient. They may destroy the pathogen, inhibit its growth, or render it more susceptible to the defense mechanisms of the body. Among these substances are arsphenamine, quinine, and the sulfonamides - sulfanilamide, sulfadiazine, and sulfa pyridine - and others.

2.7 BIOLOGICAL.

ANTIBIOTICS are substances (chemical compounds) produced by living cells and are selectively antagonistic to other living organisms. (They have the capacity to inhibit the growth of and to destroy various micro-organisms.) They are usually obtained from micro-organisms, such as bacteria, yeasts, and molds, and sometimes from higher plants. Some antibiotics, such as chloromycetin, originally obtained from a microorganism have been synthesized. No one antibiotic is inhibitory to all micro-organisms, but each has a more or less specific inhibitory or growth-preventing action on particular species. Some have proved valuable in the treatment of diseases not responsive to chemotherapeutic drugs, vaccines, or antiserums. Prominent antibiotics including penicillin, streptomycin, chloromycetin, and terramycin.

BACTERIOPHAGES. Are viruses which are parasitic to certain bacteria and may destroy them. Like other viruses, bacteriophages multiply only in the presence of living cells. They are widely distributed in nature and are commonly present in the intestines of man and animals, especially those recovering from a bacterial disease. There are various strains or races of bacteriophage, each being specific for certain types or groups of bacteria, but many bacteria, including some of the more pathogenic, have no known bacteriophage. A very small amount of bacteriophage, when added to an actively growing susceptible bacterial culture, will cause swelling, death, and disintegration of the bacterial cells within a few hours.

 

2.8 INFECTION AND IMMUNITY, GENERAL.

Infection occurs when pathogenic micro-organisms invade the tissue, multiply, and produce injury or death. It represents a conflict between the invader and the living object of attack, in which the host strives to resist the invasion and repel the invading organisms. If they are repelled, the defender suffers no ill effects; if not, infection occurs. Factors which influence the outcome of the struggle are the portals of entry, the virulence and number of organisms, and the defensive powers of the defender - man, animal, or plant. Micro-organisms range from those which produce disease (pathogens) to those which do not produce disease (non-pathogens). Under some circumstances, organisms that are considered nonpathogenic may produce infections; examples are the normal bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract which can produce disease like peritonitis, colitis, and urinary tract infections. Infections may or may not be transmissible to other individuals. A contagious disease is an infection which spreads readily from one individual to another by direct or indirect contact. Examples are Typhoid fever, Plague, and Cholera.

THE PRINCIPAL AGENTS OF GERM WARFARE. The chief requirement of an effective biological weapon is that the organism be highly infectious by the respiratory route, thus permitting effective airborne dispersal. Of these Plague (Yersinia pestis) is the most likely candidate a terrorist would use against the North American continent. This organism is highly infectious and causes a serious incapacitating disease, that is most often fatal. The organism can infect either the respiratory or oral route, and can be readily cultivated in the laboratory. All contagious diseases are infectious; however, infectious diseases are not necessarily contagious (tetanus, brucellosis, tularemia, malaria).

 

2.9 FACTORS OF INFECTION

VIRULENCE. Virulence refers to the relative infectiousness of an organism or its ability to overcome the defenses of the host.Pathogens range in virulence from those producing mild and temporary disturbances to those causing incapacitation or death. Virulence of certain organisms can be increased by repeated passage from animal to animal. In general, virulence is dependent on two factors - invasiveness and toxicity.

INVASIVENESS is the ability of a micro-organism to enter the body and spread through the tissue. It is the predominant factor in the virulence of some microorganisms, such as those causing tularemia and blood poisoning.

INFECTIVE DOSE. The infective dose denotes the number of organisms necessary to produce infection in an exposed individual. It is an extremely variable factor, depending on the micro-organism involved and the species or individual attacked; in some cases, relatively few organisms can produce an infection, while in others large numbers may be required.

INCUBATION PERIOD. When micro-organisms have been introduced into the host in sufficient amounts to produce disease, an interval of time, known as the incubation period, elapses before symptoms of disease appear. During this time the organisms establish themselves firmly and increase in numbers large enough to cause disease. The incubation period may vary from a few vhours to a few weeks, depending on the kind of pathogen and, during this interval there may be no sign of disease. At the end of the period, symptoms may appear either gradually or suddenly, and the full developed disease will become evident. A similar lapse of time occurs between the introduction of non-living toxins and the appearance of disease symptoms; this may more aptly be termed a latent, rather than an incubation, period.

ROUTES OF INFECTION. The principal portals of entry for micro-organisms into man and animals are through abrasions of the skin, through the mucous membranes of the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tracts, and through the eyes. However, it should be recognized that the unbroken skin and mucous membranes are natural defense barriers which aid in preventing an invasion by pathogenic organisms. Certain organisms require specific routes to infect, while others can invade by several routes. Most respiratory diseases are contracted be the inhalation of droplets of contaminated moisture or dusts. Intestinal infections are produced by the ingestion of contaminated food or drink. Some organisms invade by penetration of the skin through hair follicles, sweat gland ducts, or abrasions; other organisms must enter through wounds in order to establish vthemselves. Tetanus spores, for example, may be swallowed with impunity by man; but if they are introduced into a lacerated wound.- tetanus may develop.

SYMPTOMS OF INFECTION. In the early stages of disease, a few general symptoms usually appear which indicate that infection has been established. These are fever, malaise, and inflammation. FEVER. Warm-blooded animals, including man, normally maintain their body temperatures within quite narrow limits. The occurrence of an infection usually is accomplished by an abnormal rise in temperature, which is called fever. The degree of fever varies in different diseases, but may serve as a rough guide to the severity of the infection; however, the rise in temperature is a protective mechanism, unless it gets so high that it is harmful to the patient. As a rule, the individual with fever feels quite warm and his skin is likely to be flushed, but the onset of fever may be preceded by chill which causes him to shiver, sometimes violently. The chill does not necessarily indicate a drop in body temperature, even though there is a cooling sensation of the skin; the temperature of the interior of the body may be abnormally high. Fever, whether preceded by a chill or not, is usually one of the earliest symptoms of infection and is indicative of illness.

MALAISE. This is another early set of symptoms of infection in which there is a vague feeling of body discomfort, weakness, and exhaustion. It may be accompanied by nausea, dizziness, loss of appetite, and generalized aches; pains in the back, arms, legs, and head may be present. These symptoms may increase in severity as the disease develops or may be over-shadowed by other specific symptoms.

INFLAMMATION. Inflammation is a reaction of certain body tissues to injury and is characterized by pain, heat, redness, and swelling. Certain kinds of infection are indicated by inflammation of the skin, mucous membranes, or glands, as the body defenses are mobilized to combat the invader and seal off the infection. Some infections are accompanied by a characteristic eruption or rash of the skin, by means of which it is often possible to make an early diagnosis of the particular type of infection that has occurred.

 

2.10 RESISTANCE TO INFECTION.

The ability of the body to fight off or overcome an infection is known as resistance. The first fine of defense is provided by the skin and mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and genitourinary tracts, and their secretions. These help prevent entrance of micro-organisms into deeper tissues, which have little ability to ward off invasion. The second fine of defense, of which the lymphatic system is a part, is a cellular one. Specific migrating cells of the body attack and destroy the invading organisms. The third line of defense is presented by the blood, which has neutralizing bodies, and the liver and spleen, to which it carries organisms and toxins to be destroyed or inactivated.

THE SKIN AND MUCOUS MEMBRANES. The unbroken skin and mucous membranes act as mechanical barriers and are generally impervious to particulate material of bacterial size, some of which may, however, enter the skin through hair follicles and sweat gland ducts. Clean skin is also actively bactericidal to many pathogenic micro-organisms. Sweat acts as a bactericide and also aids in flushing away the germs. The mucous membrane, or mucosa, lines the surface of the canals and cavities of the body which communicate with the exterior, such as the alimentary canal and its connections, the respiratory tract and its branches, and the genitourinary tract. The mucosa produces a viscid watery secretion, known as mucus, which forms a protective covering and entangles invading micro-organisms. The constant movement, or peristalsis, of the gastrointestinal tract tends to trap micro-organisms in shreds of mucus and thus passes the organism into the lower bowel and out of the body.

Micro-organisms are also entangled by the mucus of the nasal passages and trachea, or windpipe, and swept back to the mouth by coughing or by the action of cilia, which are small hairlike projections lining these surfaces. The mucus of the genitourinary tract acts in a similar manner. Other secretions, such as the acid juices of the stomach, the alkaline ones of the intestines, and the vaginal secretions, either inhibit or destroy microorganisms, and the saliva and tears protect the body by a combination of lyasome and mechanical flushing.

CELLULAR DEFENSE. Should micro-organisms succeed in gaining entrance into deeper tissues, they are attacked-by cells known as phagocytes, which appear at the site of invasion within a few minutes and have the ability to ingest and destroy foreign bodies in the blood and other tissues. If the infective agents overwhelm the phagocytes and penetrate more deeply, they may enter the lymph channels and be carried to the lymph nodes where they are engulfed by larger phagocytes. The swelling and tenderness of the lymph nodes are symptoms of this struggle.

BLOOD DEFENSE. In addition to the white blood cells, or leucocytes, which are wandering phagocytes, the blood also contains substances called antibodies. These are immune bodies manufactured by the body in response to the introduction of antigens, foreign protein like substances, into the tissues. Vaccines are typical antigens which, when injected into the body, cause antibodies to be formed. Micro-organisms and their products, such as toxins, are protein in nature; hence they are antigens. Each antibody is specifically antagonistic to the antigen which stimulated its production and combines with the antigen to neutralize or destroy it. Many kinds of antibodies are the basis of the active immunity which may be induced naturally or artificially in the body to provide resistance against invading micro-organisms or their poisonous products. Should the invading micro-organisms overcome the cellular and blood defenses, they are carried into the blood stream and attacked by the large white cells or macrophages in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow, where the blood flow is slower than in other parts of the body, allowing more time and greater opportunity for the macrophages to engulf them.

 

2.11 IMMUNITY, GENERAL.

The ability of the living individual to resist or overcome infection or injury by a pathogenic agent is known as immunity. Relative resistance to infection is dependent upon all the protective barriers, including the skin, mucous membranes, tissue cells, and blood. Resistance due to the presence of certain antibodies in the tissue is the primary factor in determining an individual's immunity. Immunity may be classified into several types.

NATURAL IMMUNITY. Certain species of animals, certain races of people, and certain individuals of a given race appear to be born with a resistance to certain infections. Examples of natural immunity are the resistance of man to foot-and-mouth disease, the resistance of dogs to anthrax, and the relative resistance of the Negro race to yellow fever.

ACQUIRED IMMUNITY. This type of immunity may be either naturally or artificially acquired and may be active or passive.

NATURALLY ACQUIRED PASSIVE IMMUNITY (congenital). Infants possess immunity to certain infections in the first months of life due to antibodies acquired from the mother. These antibodies soon disappear, and the conferred immunity is then lost. An example of this type of immunity is the resistance of infants to diphtheria during the first year of life.

NATURALLY ACQUIRED ACTIVE IMMUNITY. This type of immunity is generally the longest lasting of all immunities. It may be the result of recovery from an attack of an infectious diseases such as typhoid, diphtheria, or tularemia (rabbit fever); or may be attributed to an earlier, mild, unrecognized infection or to repeated contact with the disease producing organism in insufficient quantities to produce disease.

ARTIFICIALLY ACQUIRED ACTIVE IMMUNITY. This type of immunity is produced through injection of vaccines of attenuated or dead organisms or injection of toxoids (inactivated toxins) to which the body reacts by forming specific antibodies. Duration of immunity thus acquired varies considerably, depending upon the specific disease and the type of vaccine or toxoid used. Examples of effective vaccines are those of smallpox and typhoid. An example of an effective toxoid is that of diphtheria.

ARTIFICIALLY ACQUIRED PASSIVE IMMUNITY. This type of immunity is obtained by the injection into the body of antibodies (immune serum) actively produced in another individual or animal in response to either natural infection or injections of specific vaccines. An example of this is the immunity conferred by an injection of tetanus antitoxin. This immunity is relatively short-lived.

TREATMENT PROBLEMS. Certain factors may arise in a terrorism germ attack that will complicate treatment of casualties. These factors include the probable employment of overwhelming numbers of pathogenic organisms in an attack, AND the unavailability of sufficient quantities of antibiotic, and shortages of medical supplies, personnel and facilities, in the event of an overwhelming number of casualties occurring at one time. Other complicating factors might include fatigue, malnutrition, and climate conditions which would accelerate the course and severity of the resulting disease.

 

2.12 VECTORS OF DISEASE.

 

In general, the term "vector" refers to the arthropods, including such as mosquitoes, flies, fleas, and lice, and a few acarids, such as mites and ticks. In some cases higher animals such as rats, cats, dogs and even man himself are considered vectors.

FLIES. The true flies have only two wings, but the word 'fly' is often applied in compound names of other insects, such as mayfly, saw fly, and stonefly. Most of the many varieties of flies have sucking mouth parts, but those few which have mouth structures capable of piercing the skin of man or animals include the most important disease vectors. The sucking flies can, however, introduce infection through previously injured body surfaces and are capable of mechanically transferring pathogens to exposed surfaces and food. Typhoid fever, bacillary and amoebic dysentery, and cholera are examples of disease which may be spread mechanically by non-biting flies. Yaws, a highly infectious and contagious non-venereal Spirochaetal disease resembling syphilis, may be acquired through a cut or abrasion of the skin, either directly by contact with discharges from lesions or indirectly through the agency of non-biting flies. The non-biting flies, which include the common housefly, are often termed "filth flies." It should be emphasized that they may easily carry pathogenic micro-organisms from excrement, sputum, open sores, or putrefying matter to food, milk, and healthy mucous membranes. Tularemia (rabbit fever), a bacterial disease of wild animals and man sometimes transmitted by the horsefly and wood tick.

FLEAS. Fleas are small, wingless, insect parasites of the skin of mammals and birds. Their bodies are flattened laterally, and they have mouth parts for piercing the skin. While different species show preferences for certain hosts, when hungry they will attack any warm-blooded animal, which greatly increases their potential to transmit disease to man. The common rat flea is the vector of marine typhus, a rickettsial disease of rats and mice, and occasionally bites and infects man with the disease; it is the chief vector of PLAGUE from rats and other rodents to man and among rats and mice. Other fleas are known vectors of PLAGUE in the western United States. Fleas can also transmit HIV (AIDS).

LICE. The lice are sucking, dorso-ventrally flattened, wingless insects, parasitic on the skin of mammals and birds. The body louse (and probably the head louse) is the vector of rickettsial diseases, epidemic typhus, trench fever, PLAGUE and HIV (AIDS).


 

CHAPTER 3

GENERAL PROPERTIES OF BIOLOGICAL WARFARE AGENTS

 

3.1 PURPOSE

The purpose of using BW agents is to produce widespread injury or death in man. Under the term "living organisms" are included not only microorganisms, but also higher forms of animal life which injury by acting as vectors of

disease. The micro-organisms which could be used as BW agents are "FEW", compared with the total number known, but they

include the most promising candidates. Any pathogens that could cause diseases having high mortality or morbidity rates might

be useful in Biological warfare. The toxins are comparatively scarce in number; while they include some of the most poisonous

substances known, practical problems exist which will have to be solved before their potential usefulness can be ascertained. In

the former Soviet Union, after an enormous out lay of capital, came up with an effective Biotoxin weapon. This weapon was

known by the term "yellow rain", the process involves the solvent extraction of a toxin produced by Staphylococci aureus which

causes Disseminated Intra vascular Coagulation. This toxin was impregnated upon wheat flower giving it a yellow color. This

material had to be maintained in an oxygen free environment prior to being used, as oxygen would deactivate the toxin within 48

hours. The toxin was delivered to target area in two ways, one way was to spray it from aircraft over a target area. The toxin

settled to the ground in a yellow mist, thus the term "yellow rain"; the lethal dose was very small. Once inhaled, the blood started

to coagulate from the head and lungs. Death resulted with in minutes and as the toxin was deactivated with in forty eight hours,

soldiers could quickly and safely enter the area. This toxin weapon was also mounted onto RPGs for selected targets. Another

Biotoxin developed by the former Soviet Union was the STAR. This was pure crystalline Botulism toxin and is the most

powerful poison known. It was believed to be a sabotage weapon, to be directed against municipal water supplies. It is

unknown how far this project went, or if it was even completed. If indeed this project was completed and a terrorist group

obtained this weapon, and introduced it into a city's water supply the death toll would be enormous. The only defense against

this toxin is to boil the water before drinking as botulism toxin is heat liable and only five minutes of boiling will deactivate it.

3.2 PROPERTIES PECULIAR TO BW AGENTS. Most of the BW agents, particularly the pathogenic microorganisms and

toxins, have certain properties not possessed in general by other weapons. They have a delayed action it that a lag or incubation

period, often of days, must elapse between the time the victim is exposed to an infectious agent and the time when he comes

down with the disease. Identification of microbial agents is difficult and slow as their presence cannot be detected by the

unaided senses; it takes hours and usually days for microbial agents to develop in artificial media. However recently developed

immunological procedures such as precipitant, agglutination, immune diffusion, complement fixation, enzyme immune assay

(EIA) make for rapid identification of possible BW agents. The micro-organisms are living agents in contrast to other agents of

warfare. Under favorable conditions pathogenic micro-organisms can reproduce and multiply in the host, so that small numbers

of pathogens may in time constitute a grave risk to health or perhaps to fife. Some contagious pathogens spread from individual

to individual and cause epidemics. Most are also quite selective, attacking only certain species of animals or plants. While a

given weight of biological agent theoretically may be many times more dangerous than an equal amount of the most effective

chemical agent, from a practical standpoint its activity is strictly limited by its ability to survive and maintain its virulence under

exposure to air, light, cold, dryness and dissemination methods and its ability to overcome the resistance of the target host.

Finally, biological agents lend themselves well to covert use, because the small amounts of material needed are easily concealed,

transported, and used in sabotage operations. Because of the relatively small amounts required, their cost should be much less

than that of other agents or weapons.

3.3 EPIDEMIC SPREAD. A regional outbreak of a contagious disease which attacks many individuals and spreads rapidly is

called an epidemic. In each condition there is an unseal increase in the number of cases of the disease in a limited time among a

limited population. In nature, the spread of disease occurs from direct contact between individuals, from contact with or

ingestion of excreta and contaminated food, from exposure to dusts and mists of infected material (aerosols), and through

transmission by animal or insect vectors. Following large-scale dissemination of a biological agent, an initial outbreak of disease

of epidemic proportions might occur. This might or might not be followed by a secondary or epidemic spread of the disease,

depending upon its relative contagiousness, the presence or absence of favorable environmental conditions, and other factors.

Since epidemics among the human population can be prevented or controlled by sanitation, immunization. quarantine, and

treatment, rapidly spreading epidemics are not considered to be likely aftermaths of biological attacks in civilized countries as

long as these controlling factors remain at a high level of efficiency. Epizootic among animals have more dangerous possibilities

than do epidemics among persons because of the herding and feeding habits of animals; their control or elimination requires

extensive use of costly diagnostic and immunological procedures, quarantine where possible, and often the destruction of large

numbers of infected animals. Effective measures of preventing of controlling plant epiphytotics and pest infestations are even

more deficient and possibly, because of the tremendous amounts of manpower and materials required, the vectors involved, and

the areas to be covered.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 8

BIOLOGICAL WARFARE

 

 

8.1 YOU MUST KNOW THE SCORE. This book is for you, the North American resident. Its purpose is to help you

perform your job under BW conditions and to live to tell about it. The material presented in this manual is applicable to both

germ and biotoxin warfare. When any poison gets into your body, it can cause sickness or death. Likewise, when biotoxin, or

biological attacks occur, some casualties are certain.

Casualties are people put out of action, sick, wounded, missing, or killed. Biological agents cause casualties just as bullets and

high explosives do. However, the number of casualties will depend on the knowledge of the North American citizen. Learn now

what you can do to protect yourself and to help maintain the efficiency of your community. The skill of you, the individual North

American, in protecting yourself will help determine the success of your community. Users of this book are encouraged to

submit recommended changes or comments for its improvement. Comments should be keyed to the specific page, paragraph,

and fine of the text in which change is recommended. Reasons should be provided for each comment to insure understanding

and complete evaluation. Comments should be forwarded direct to my attention.

8.2 WHY THIS BOOK WAS WRITTEN. By studying this book you will learn basic facts that you must know in order to

survive during a biological attack and maintain your job. It will answer most of your questions about survival under Biological

Warfare conditions.

8.3 HOW TO GET THE MOST FROM THIS BOOK As you read and study this book, ask yourself the following questions:

 

a. What are Biological operations ?

b. How can biological agents injury or kill me?

c. How may I be attacked?

e. How can I protect myself against biological agents?

f. f What can I do to help in minimizing the number of casualties in my community? In this

book are the facts which answer these questions for you. Remember them! They can save your life!

8.4 WHY BIOLOGICAL WARFARE MUST BE TAKEN SERIOUSLY

 

a. GENERAL. The purpose of biological warfare is to produce casualties in man and animals and to cause damage to plants

and material.

b. BIOLOGICAL OPERATIONS. The effects of harmful micro-organisms (germs) are well known to you. You have probably

experienced the effects of disease such as colds, dysentery, measles, mumps, and chickenpox. Such diseases are caused by

certain types of harmful micro-organisms which get into your body and multiply, thus producing infection.

Micro-organisms are living organisms that are so small they can be seen only through a microscope. Of the thousands of them in

the world around us, the vast majority are harmless or actually beneficial to man. Only a few of the disease-producing

micro-organisms are harmful enough to be considered for employment as biological agents. A biological operation is the

employment of biological agents as a weapon system to produce casualties or damage. A group of larger organisms, capable of

caring a disease-producing micro-organism to an individual or from one individual to another, are known as vectors and also

can be considered for use in biological operations. These vectors include flies, misquotes, fleas, ticks, and lice.

8.5 HOW THE ENEMY MAY ATTACK YOU. The following are examples of munitions that a modem enemy may use

against you in biological warfare. These munitions are regarded as sound methods of conducting operations. However, other

means of attack are also possible and may be used by an enemy to achieve surprise.

1. SABOTAGE.

2. FREE BALLOONS.

3. GENERATORS.

4. AIRPLANE SPRAY.

5. VECTORS.

When biological agents are inhaled, reaching the stomach through consumption of contaminated food or water, or are

introduced through the skin, incapacitating or fatal diseases can result. Protecting yourself so that you can continue your job

against an enemy (foreign or domestic) using biological agents is your primary concern. To protect yourself against any danger,

you must know what the danger is, how it affects you, and how to recognize its presence. Correct individual defensive measures

can protect you from many of the hazards you may face from biological agents. Therefore, learning these measures can mean

not only that you live to tell about it, but also that your community stays on the job to defeat the enemy.

8.6 WHERE TOXIC AGENTS CAN ENTER YOUR BODY

 

You may rightly conclude that any equipment that win keep biological agents out of your lungs, out of your eyes, and off your

skin will PROTECT you. The types of protective equipment provided and the protective measures needed to block the entry of

biological agents into your body are described in the chapters which follow. As a well-trained resident of North America, you

must know how to use your protective equipment, and how to make the most of any shelter you may have. Using this

knowledge, you will be prepared to protect yourself against the weapons of Germ warfare and, at the same time, to carry on

your job.

An important consideration in protecting yourself and continuing your job in any future conflict is to realize that the danger of

chemical and biological operations may exist simultaneously or separately. The enemy will use any weapon or any combination

of weapons which he thinks will put you and your community out of action. This means that he may use chemical weapon and

then follow up with a biological attack. He may use toxic chemical weapons to contaminate certain areas in the hope of making

our citizens more vulnerable to biological attack. He may use biological agents to inflict personnel losses, hoping to lower your

community's defensive power against his assaults. Learn now how to protect yourself against all the weapons of modem

warfare. Stay constantly alert to any indication that the enemy has used a biological agent. Don't panic!

8.7 FIRST AID IS VITAL. Now more than ever, it is necessary for the individual North American know well those measures

which can save his or her life and the lives of others. If you have not received prior training in the special measures required

following exposure to biological agents, they may at first seem difficult to remember or difficult to do. Use this book as a

reference and as an aid in getting them firmly fixed in your mind. In any case, be ready to rely on your self when first aid is

required, and your chances of survival will be greatly increased.

 

 

 

 

8.8 BIOLOGICAL AGENTS CAN BE NEUTRALIZED

 

It is possible to make biological agents lose their harmful effects and to remove contamination by procedures referred to as

decontamination. Details of how you as an individual can accomplish decontamination are covered in later chapters. The

knowledge that biological agents can be made ineffective should build confidence in your ability to continue your job in the

presence of these agents.

8.9 EVERY NORTH AMERICAN MUST KNOW.

 

1. The types of biological agents and their effects.

2. How biological agents can be detected.

3. How to use their protective equipment.

4. How to care for their protective equipment.

5. How to perform first aid.

 

6.. How to remove biological agents from themselves and their equipment. As a North American, you must master the six

objectives listed above. Learning these objectives now will make the next chapters easier to read and understand. When you

have mastered the six objectives fisted, the payoff will justify your efforts. You and your community will then be prepared to

perform your jobs against an enemy using biological and chemical agents. Such preparedness results when training, knowledge,

confidence, and courage replace fear and panic.

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 9

PROCEDURES IN BIOLOGICAL OPERATIONS GENERAL

 

 

9.1 BIOLOGICAL OPERATIONS DEFINED. Biological agents are microorganisms which

 

cause death in man. A biological operation, then, is the employment of biological agents by a weapon system to produce

casualties or damage. It is the intentional use of biological agents that makes biological operations different from natural disease

hazards. Actually, everyone is waging a fight against microorganisms from the moment they are born. Shortly after birth, the

eyes of an infant are disinfected - freed from dangerous microorganisms. At home the parents continue his fight against

microorganisms by keeping their body and clothes clean, sterilizing milk and bottles, keeping them away from people with colds,

and seeing that they gets certain immunizations ("shots"). You win remember that at a very young age you were impressed with

the importance of personal cleanliness, and probably before you entered school you were given a smallpox vaccination. Any

belief that biological operations concern some unknown super-weapon is not based on fact. Man's fight against

disease-producing micro-organisms has gone on since the beginning of time. Biological operations are simply a man made

attempt to produce disease on a large scale.

9.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOLOGICAL AGENTS. Whereas some micro-organisms cause such diseases as typhoid

and cholera, others are used to produce antibiotics (penicillin, streptomycin, Aureomycin, and others) that fight diseases. Most

microorganisms, in fact, are not harmful to man. Many industries today use certain desirable bacteria and fungi. Yeast, a group

of fungi, is used in the manufacture of bread and beer. Molds, also fungi, are used in making vinegar and cheese and in such

industries as textile manufacturing and leather tanning. Only a few types of micro-organisms produce disease. Even fewer types

are so infective and so hardy that they can be used as biological agents.

1. YERSINIA PESTIS (PLAGUE),

2. BACILLUS ANTHRACES (ANTHRAX),

3. VIBRIO CHOLERA (CHOLERA),

4. SALMONELLA TYPHI (TYPHOID:) FEVER).

 

These four microorganisms, in this order, would be the most likely candidates for use in a biological attack by a terrorist

organization or nation. And will be the ones that we will concentrate our defense and treatment against. Since microorganisms

are living matter, they behave as do other living things. They multiply, breath, eat, grow, and die. They depend on moisture,

food, and certain limits of temperature for life and growth. When their surroundings do not provide suitable conditions, they die.

Most microorganisms are killed by such simple acts as boiling, adding purification tablets to water, cooking food, or exposure

to sunlight. They also can be removed with soap and water.

Biological agents can be released into the air to travel downwind as aerosols composed of tiny particles. These particles, which

are smaller than dust particles, normally cannot be seen as they travel downwind and can go wherever dust can go. Unless a

protective mask is worn, the biological agent particles will be inhaled and thus cause infection that can result in sickness or

death. Biological agents can also contaminate food and water supplies and, in some cases, clothing and equipment. These

agents may also be spread by vectors such as mosquitoes, fleas, flies, or ticks. Some of the biological agents may live in the

target area for long periods of time. The majority, however, will probably die within a few hours when exposed to sunlight.

9.3 WAYS OF KILLING MICROORGANISMS

1. Boiling at least 15 minutes.

2. Water purification tablets.

3. Soap, scrubbing.

4. Sunning your clothes on a line.

5. Cooking. Good defenses against biological agents.

Biological agents cannot be detected by your five senses or by chemical detectors. Their presence can be confirmed only by

laboratory examination. Furthermore, biological agents do not produce immediate effects. The time between exposure to an

agent and the beginning of disease symptoms (known as the incubation period) can vary from a few hours to several days,

depending upon the agent used. Men exposed to equal amounts of an agent will react differently. Some may escape disease

entirely, others may have very mild attacks, while others may become seriously ill.

9.4 HOW BIOLOGICAL AGENTS GET INTO THE BODY

 

Most biological agents in aerosol form get into the body through the respiratory tract. Some agents may also be used to

contaminate water or food and thus could enter your body if you drink the contaminated water or ate the contaminated food. If

your hands are contaminated, it is possible for you to transfer a biological agent to your mouth or to food you handle. If vectors

are used to spread a biological agent, the agent would probably enter the body as a result of a vector bite. Remember that

although contaminated food or water and vector bites can permit biological agents to enter the body, the main danger in the

event of a biological agent attack is breathing the agent aerosols. Your protective mask, if property fitted, will prevent agents in

the aerosol from entering your body.

9.5 THE DANGERS OF BIOLOGICAL OPERATIONS.

 

Biological operations present dangers that you must be prepared to meet. Among the dangers are new ways of disseminating

biological agents, and new agents that might be developed. When a person coughs or sneezes, tiny drops of moisture are blown

from his mouth and nose into the air. If he is ill, the spray may carry harmful microorganisms to other persons. Scientists working

in laboratories have found that they are able to spread biological agents in much the same way in the form of an aerosol. Thus,

the micro- organisms can be dispersed by special spray devices or by munitions designed to produce an aerosol upon impact.

When microorganisms are disseminated in this manner, anyone who breathes the aerosol is likely to become infected. Aerosols

normally will be invisible a few feet from the point of dissemination.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 10

FACTS YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT BIOLOGICAL OPERATIONS

 

 

 

Biological agents are hard to detect and identify. There is no simple method of detecting biological agents, since they are tiny

particles of living matter so small they can be seen only under a microscope. These tiny living particles are referred to as

microorganisms. Positive identification of a biological agent is more difficult than is the detection of the possible presence of such

an agent. Positive identification may require from several days to weeks and can be made only by trained personnel. This is true,

first, because it may be necessary to wait from a few days to weeks for symptoms of the disease to appear in infected persons.

Second, laboratory analysis of material taken from sick individuals and a study of disease symptoms must be made before an

agent can be identified. You cannot see, feel, or taste microorganisms spread in a biological attack. Even though biological

agents are hard to detect, you must do what you can to alert your community or the CDC of an attack at the earliest possible

moment. Every clue counts. A prompt report of suspicious clues or activities may lead to the prevention of many cases of illness

and may even prevent deaths. You should inform. your community leaders or local Health Department of any illness you or your

buddies have. Report at once any food or water suspected of making you ill. The appearance of certain clues may warn you of,

or cause you to suspect, a biological attack.

You can assist in the detection by reporting to your community leaders the location of any of the following suspicious items or

circumstances:

(1) Light aircraft (e.g., Cessna 1. 50) dropping unidentified material or spraying unidentified

 

substances.

(2) New and unusual types of bombs, particularly those which burst with little or no blast.

(3) Smokes of unknown source or nature.

(4) An increased occurrence of sick or dead animals.

(5) Unusual or unexplained increases in the number of insects, such as mosquitoes, ticks, or

 

fleas.

(6) Any weapon not seeming to have any immediate casualty effect.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 11

HOW TO PROTECT YOURSELF AGAINST BIOLOGICAL AGENTS

 

 

In the event of biological attack, you have several effective ways of protecting yourself. BIOLOGICAL OPERATIONS IN A

NUTSHELL; The employment of biological agents by a weapon system to produce casualties; Protection against biological

agent attack:

(11. 1) HEALTH Guard your health by good diet, sleep, and exercise. A clean body and sanitary living area help prevent the

spread of disease, regardless of its source.

(11.2) SHOTS Keep your immunizations up to date, You should have your doctor give you a Pneumococcal Polysaccharide

vaccination. It will increase your body's resistance to disease and may save your life.

(11.3) PURITY Eat and drink from only approved sources. The enemy may try to contaminate food and water. Contaminated

food or water can cause sickness or death.

(11.4) REPORT Be alert. Report suspicions activities to you local community leader. The enemy may use sabotage and other

means of employing biological agents.

(11.5) COVER Microorganisms must enter your body to cause disease. Your protective mask and protective clothing properly

worn will protect you.

(11.6) AVOID contaminated areas. You help the enemy if you catch and spread disease.

(11.7) SCRUB hands and face with soap and water frequently. Take a complete bath as often as possible

(11.8) STERILIZE. Clothing should be either boiled, scrubbed with soap and water, dry-cleaned, or aired in the sun.

(11.9) ANTIBIOTICS. Purchase and have on hand as large a supply of the following as you can afford. Antibiotics may be

obtained in quantities from farmers' supply facilities (Quality Farm and Fleet, CO-OP, Landmark, etc.). at least:

(a) One pound of TERRAMYCIN per person.

(b) One pound of PANMYCIN per person. 0 2 vials of AGRI-STREPT per person.

(d) Four packages of TERRAMYCIN SOLUBLE POWDER per person.

(e) 30 packages of either BIOLYTE CALF ELECTROLYTE FORMULA or

 

ANCHOR ORAL REHYDRATION CALF REHYDRATION POWDER. (this is mandatory for the treatment of CHOLERA). Preparation of these antibiotics for human use will be covered in a following chapter.

(11.10) MEDICAL SUPPLIES:

(a) Three glass 5 cc hypodermic syringes & needles

(b) 20 plastic disposable 5 cc hypodermic syringes & needles. May be obtained in quantities from farmers supply facilities

(Quality Farm and Fleet, CO OP, LANDMARK, etc.).

© One bottle Iodine Tincture.

(d) One bottle isopropyl alcohol rubbing compound.

(e) Two jugs of household bleach

(f) One oral thermometer.

(g) One rectal thermometer. (for children).

(h) Bag of sterile cotton balls.

(i) One box of latex rubber exam gloves.

(j) Several bars or bottles of a strong disinfection soap. Lye soap can be obtained at most army surplus store's (or you can

make it) and is one of the best.

(k) Two bottles of hydrogen peroxide per person.

 

(1) One container of petroleum jelly. (For rectal thermometer).

 

(m) At least one tyvek sack suit, with drawstring neck, elastic sleeve, air inlet, with shoes & hood. If these cannot be obtained,

a motorcycle rainsuit can be used and can be obtained at most cycle shops.

(n) Four 117A8 Bags of 1000 Empty CAPSULES.

 

Obtained from:

PROLONGEVITY, LTD

10 Alden Road Unit 6 Markham,

Ontario L3R2SI Canada.

1-800-544-4440

(o) One 118A7 CAPSULE FELLING MACHINE FOR 00 CAPSULES. Also obtained from PROLONGEVITY, LTD.

(p) Five pounds of salt per person.

 

The most important ones are:

(1) putting on your protective mask,

(2) avoiding food and water that could be contaminated,

(3) using soap and water generously, and

(4) taking all prescribed immunizations or prophylactic antibiotics.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 12

 

 

GUARDING AGAINST CONTAMINATION, BACTERIAL & VIRAL

(12. 1) Thorough hand washing with soap and water before and after contact with any sick person as well as any contact with

potentially contaminated surfaces is simple medical common sense. The Orientals have for centuries not touched strangers when

greeting. Instead, they politely bow or place hands in a prayer like gesture demonstrating a recognition of the other person's

presence. Military tradition, for as far back in time as one cares to go, dictated a non-touching hand salute. It could very well be

that in cultures where touching was a routine gesture of stranger greeting and recognition, the hand-shakers and the

"touchy-feely" peoples died off from infectious diseases that were easily spread by hand contact, leaving behind cultures that

didn't touch to survive and populate those areas. It would be to our advantage that in the future North Americans adopt a

non-touching hand salute to reduce the possible spread of disease.

(12.2) If one is administering aid to one suspected of having been exposed to a biological agent, one should wear latex rubber

gloves if one is going to deal with any blood, secretions, body fluids, or any article that has been soiled by them.

(12.3) Any environmental surface contaminated by those citizens suspected of been exposed to a biological agent by means of

those persons' body fluids, blood, vomit, saliva, bowl movements, or bodily secretions should be cleaned up immediately or

avoided. The fluids should be placed in an air tight plastic bag and incinerated. The surface or article should then be cleaned

with a disinfectant. At least one part household bleach to nine parts water should be sufficient. Be aware of cross contamination.

Any object that has been in contact with the fluid should also be considered to be contaminated. It the body fluid splatters on

clothing, remove the clothing or soak it with a disinfectant.

(12.4) If you are near anyone who is coughing and not wearing a mask or cannot be compelled to wear a mask, then you

should wear a mask when you are in close proximity to them.

(12.5) Protective eye-wear should be worn in any situation wherein a splatter of blood, bloody secretions or body fluids are

possible.

(12.6) Any bedding, towels, or clothing used or touched by the infected should be washed in hot, bleached, soapy water before

being used by anyone else.

(12.7) Do not use or reuse any sharp instruments, needles, or syringes that have come in contact with another person. If you are

required to handle such instruments, be extremely cautious not to cut your skin or puncture yourself with them. If someone loans

you a needle or tweezers to remove a sliver or piece of glass from the skin, sterilize them by passing them through a flame or

soaking for at least 15 minutes in a strong disinfectant. For glass hypodermic syringes & reusable needles, scalpel, tweezers and

other sterilizable medical instruments, the common household pressure cooker can be used to sterilize these instruments. By

simply placing one cup of water in the bottom of the cooker, then inserting the rack that accompany most household pressure

cookers, and them placing the instruments to be sterilized upon the rack. Cover and place on moderate heat, start counting

when the steam jiggle starts to jiggle. Set a timer for 30 minutes, this will kill even the most resistant spores of anthrax and all

viruses.

(12.8) Do not share eating utensils with a person who you suspect to have been exposed to a biological agent or to be a carrier

in the case with typhoid nor allow them access to your food

whereby their secretions, open sores, or blood could contaminate your food. Avoid any food handling institutions where you

cannot vouch personally for the employees. Be very discriminating in where you eat. Observe the employees in the restaurant

you routinely visit.

 

If they appear unhealthy, consider an alternative eating establishment. If you are eating in a strange place, insure that the food is

steaming when it is served to you. Dining out in a restaurant is not without risk especially where persons who are infected with

an biological agent and other food borne infectious diseases are possibly employed. You must assume that the employees are

infected until medical testing proves otherwise. Make certain that the utensils are clean and the food has been prepared recently

and is still fresh. Cold salads, peeled fruit dishes, cream dishes, open public access salad bars, cold food counters, and buffets

have always been dangerous propositions in foreign countries, and as the infectious disease rates increase in this country similar

considerations will apply depending upon the local and the prevalence of infectious persons. Most credible diarrheal disease

experts recommend that one not eat food unless it is steaming when it arrives at the table. This will insure that the food was

raised once to the boiling point. This amount of heat win destroy many protozoans, bacteria, and viruses, however it is not

sufficient to destroy anthrax spores, and it is not to be considered a sterilization process. Some organisms will only be killed by

prolonged high temperatures. It has been said that frying a food thoroughly adequately sterilizes it. Avoid under cooked

seafood, especially when cholera has been reported to be in the area, and under no circumstances eat any under cooked sea

food that you suspect may have come from the Gulf of Mexico. This area already has established a cholera foci.

Avoid sauces prepared with raw eggs (mayonnaise, hollandaise, etc.) as eggs are a source of salmonella. Food that has

remained at room temperature for a prolonged time, even though re-refrigerated, is a good candidate for contamination. The

common practice whereby a person licks a spoon and then uses it to take contents out of a food container contaminates the

food container with the micro-organisms from his/her mouth. Avoid condiments (Catsup, mustard, hot sauces, etc. that allow for

communal use in restaurants that you do not trust because one never knows with whom one is communing. If food is catered,

evaluate the hygiene and risk group status of persons who prepare the food. It is not unreasonable to refuse a plate that has

thumb prints on the eating surface or that has visible evidence of finger traffic. Dishes which predispose a number of persons to

dip into with crackers, chips or bread can become contaminated when people take additional dips with the same piece of food

that has touched their mouth. If the need arises, a pressure cooker provides sufficient sterilizing capacity for any food, utensil, or

dressing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 13

 

 

 

PREPARATION OF VETERINARY & AGRICULTURE ANTIBIOTICS FOR HUMAN USE.

13.1

1. YERSINIA PESTIS (PLAGUE),

 

2. BACILLUS ANTHRACES (ANTHRAX),

 

3. VIBRIO CHOLERA (CHOLERA),

 

4. 4. SALMONELLA TYPHI (TYPHOID FEVER).

These four microorganisms, in this order, would be the most likely candidates for use in a biological attack by a terrorist

organization or nation. Consequently these will be the ones that we will concentrate our defense and treatment against.

13.2

 

PANMYCIN (TETRACYCLINE HYDROCHLORIDE), and

TERRAMYCIN (OXYTETRACYCLINE HCL),

 

These antibiotics are effective treatment for Yersinia pestis, Vibrio cholera, and Salmonella typhi

AGRI-STREPT (STERILE PENICILLIN G PROCAINE, and

DIHYDROSTREPTOMYCIN SULFATE).

 

This antibiotic is effective treatment for Bacillus anthraces. (Terramycin & Panmycin can be used in people allergic to penicillin

but do not use penicillin in combination with Terramycin or Panmycin).

13.3 Panmycin (tetracycline hydrochloride) may be obtained in quantities from farmers supply facilities (eg., Quality Farm and

Fleet, CO-OP, LANDMARK, etc.). Panmycin is sold for pneumonia and scours treatment and states on the label that it is not

for human use, however the panmycin contained in these bolus tablets and that from a pharmacy is identical. These Veterinary

panmycin bolus tablets are deliberately made too large for human use, 1.115 inches long, 3/5 inch wide, inch deep. Thus in

order for this antibiotic to be used, it must be reduced to a powder.

First you may need to obtain a grain mill, coffee grinder etc. One of the finest compact & versatile grain mills we've tested. The

Back-to-Basics grain mill can be obtained from:

NITRO-PACK PREPAREDNESS CENTER

151 North Main St

Heber City Utah 84032

1-800-866-4876; Priced at $64.95.

Also can be obtained from:

Lehman's Hardware and Appliances

One Lehman Circle, PO Box 41

Kidron, Ohio 44636 (USA)

1-216-857-5757, Fax 1-216-857-5785; Priced At $75.95.

Or a good quality food blender, Vita-Mix is the best obtainable and can be acquired from a good health food store or catalogue. This will save a lot ot time and energy.

Second you will need a pestle, a inch by 6 inch dowel rod may be used, however one of the best we have tested is a bullet

starter used by muzzle loader enthusiasts. This has a round wooden ball with a short brass rod and a inch by six inch dowel

rod with a brass tip. And may be obtained a most sporting shops for around $5. This will be used to help the crushed Panmycin

feed through the grain mill. (this is not required if you have a good quality Vita-Mx food blender). Third you will need a pair of

channel locks or vice grips obtainable at any automotive supply.

 

 

 

13.4 PROCEDURE

 

First attach the grain mill to a counter top or table. Second take a Panmycin bolus tablet and place in the jaws of the channel

locks or vice grips placing the bolus length wise, crush and allow the pieces to fall into the grain mill hopper. Third while turning

the grain mill handle push the crushed pieces into the grain mill burr, (you will find it easier if you loosen the knob on the grain

mill handle, this will allow bigger pieces to feed), the panmycin is reduced to a fine powder.(With the Vita-Mis you just pour the

large pills into the blender and turn it on). An RCBS 5-0-5 powder scale makes an good scale for weighing out antibiotic

dosage and can be obtained from most reloading shops for about $45, these scales measure in grains.

PANMYCIN: AN EFFECTIVE TREATMENT FOR PLAGUE, CHOLERA, & TYPHOID FEVER.

 

 

13.5 PANMYCIN DOSAGE..

 

(1) once, before you enter an area that you are at a heightened risk of exposure to the above microbes, and once after you have

left that area, if less than 16 hours.

(2) twice daily - for six days, if you have been exposed to the above microbes.

(3) three times daily - for ten days, treatment of infected individuals

(4) four times daily - for ten days, aggressive treatment of severally ill patients.

 

Refer to the following chart for dosages determined by body weight,

One gram= 0.035 ounce, one ounce= 437,5 grain.

 

BODY WEIGHT (LBS.)

TEASPOON

OUNCE

GRAM

GRAINS

MILLIGRAMS

10

0.15

0.021

0.59

9

50

20

0.3

0.041

1.18

18

100

30

0.45

0.062

1.8

27

150

40

0.6

0.082

2.5

36

200

50

0.75

0.1

2.94

45

250

60

0.9

0.12

3.52

54

300

70

1.05

0.14

4.11

63

350

80

1.2

0.16

4.7

72

400

90

1.35

0.19

5.3

81

450

100

1.5

0.21

5.8

90

500

110

1.65

0.22

6.46

99

550

120

1.8

0.25

7.1

108

600

130

1.95

0.27

7.6

117

650

140

2.1

0.29

8.2

126

700

150

2.25

0.31

8.8

135

750

160

2.4

0.32

9.4

144

800

170

2.55

0.35

9.99

153

850

180

2.7

0.37

10.58

162

900

190

2.85

0.39

11.17

171

950

200

3.0

0.41

11.76

180

1,000

210

3.15

0.43

12.34

189

1,050

220

3.3

0.45

12.9

198

1,100

230

3.45

0.47

13.52

207

1,150

240

3.6

0.49

14.1

216

1,200

 

 

 

 

Take the 118A7 capsule filling machine Insert the 117A8 00 Empty Capsules and fill with the

Panmycin powder. Each LEVEL TEA SPOON = 6 CAPSULES

An alternative would be to weigh out the panmycin powder and mixed with a small amount of water, (about enough for a

swallow), and chase it with a glass of water. For children you can take a small glass of water, add the panmycin and a teaspoon

of brown sugar. If the children object to the taste panmycin can also be mixed with a glass of CLUB SODA brought to room

temperature, and swallowed swiftly. If a person starts hearing a wringing sound in the ears decrease dosage. (You will thank

your lucky stars that you purchased the capsule machine and capsule so that this method could be avoided)

 

13.6 TERRAMYCIN (Oxytetracycline HCL) may be obtained in quantities from farmers' supply facilities (Quality-Farm and

Fleet, CO-OP, LANDMARK, etc.).Terramycin is sold for bacterial enteritis and bacterial pneumonia treatment and states on

the label that it is not for human use, however the terramycin contained in these bolus tablets and that from a pharmacy is

identical. These Veterinary terramycin bolus tablets are deliberately made too large for human use, 1.1 inch long, .5 inch wide,

.4 inch deep. Thus in order for this antibiotic to be used, it must be reduced to a powder.

First you need to obtain a grain mill, coffee grinder etc.,. One of the finest compact & versatile grain mills we've tested, The

Back-To-Basics grain mill can be obtained from:

NITRO-PACK PREPAREDNESS CENTER

151 NORTH MAIN ST.

HEBER CITY, UTAH 84032

1-800-866-4876 Priced at $64.95.

Also can be obtained from:

Lehman's Hardware and Appliances

One Lehman Circle, PO Box 41

Kidron, Ohio 44636 (USA) 1-216-857-5757, Fax 1-216-857-5785 Priced At $75.95.

(this is not required if you have a good quality Vita-Mix food blender)

Second you will need a pestle, a inch by 6 inch dowel rod may be used, however one of the best we have tested is a bullet

starter used by muzzle loader enthusiasts. This has a round wooden ball with a short brass rod and a inch by six inch dowel

rod with a brass tip. It may be obtained a most sporting shops for around $5. This will be used to help the crushed Paninycin

feed through the grain mill (this is not required if you have a good quality Vita-Mix food blender). Third you will need a pare of

channel locks or vice grips. This can be obtained at any automotive supply.

13.7 PROCEDURE

 

First attach the grain mill to a counter top or table. Second take a Terramycin bolus tablet and place in the jaws of the channel

locks or vice grips placing the bolus length wise, crush and allow the pieces to fall into the grain mill hopper. Third while turning

the grain mill handle push the crushed pieces into the grain mill burr, (you will find it easier if you loosen the knob on the grain

mill handle, this will allow bigger pieces to feed), the terramycin is reduced to a fine powder (this is not required if you have a

good quality Vita-Mix food blender). An RCBS 5-0-5 powder scale makes an good scale for weighing out antibiotic dosage

and can be obtained from most reloading shops for about $45, these scales measure in GRAINS.

 

 

 

 

TERRAMYCIN

AN EFFECTIVE TREATMENT FOR

PLAGUE, CHOLERA, TYPHOID FEVER, & ANTHRAX13.8 TERRAMYCIN DOSAGE

(1) once, before you enter an area that you are at a heightened risk of exposure to the above microbes, and once after you have

left that area, if less than 16 hours.

(2) twice daily - for six days, if you have been exposed to the above microbes.

(3) three times daily - for ten days, treatment of infected individuals

(4) four times daily - for ten days, aggressive treatment of severally ill patients.

 

For Dosages determined by body weight, refer to the following chart:

One gram = 0.035 ounce, one ounce = 437.5 grain.

 

 

BODY WEIGHT

TEASPOON

OUNCES

GRAMS

GRAINS

MILLIGRAMS

10

0.14

0.012

0.35

5.29

50

20

0.29

0.024

0.69

10.57

100

30

0.43

0.036

1.035

15.86

150

40

0.57

0.048

1.382

21.14

200

50

0.71

0.060

1.72

26.4

250

60

0.86

0.072

2.07

31.70

300

70

1.00

0.085

2.4

37.00

350

80

1.14

0.097

2.76

42.29

400

90

1.29

0.108

3.09

47.6

450

100

1.43

0.119

3.45

52.9

500

110

1.57

0.133

3.79

58.1

550

120

1.71

0.145

4.14

63.4

600

130

1.86

0.157

4.49

68.7

650

140

2.00

0.169

4.83

74.00

700

150

2.14

0.181

5.18

79.3

750

160

2.29

0.193

5.52

94.6

800

170

2.43

0.205

5.9

89.9

850

180

2.57

0.217

6.21

95.1

900

190

2.72

0.229

6.56

100.4

950

200

2.9

0.24

6.9

105.7

1,000

210

3 0.

0.254

7.3

111

1,050

220

3.14

0.265

7.6

116

1,100

230

3.3

0.278

7.9

121.6

1,150

240

3.43

0.29

8.3

126.9

1,200

 

 

 

Take the 118A7 capsule filling machine and insert the 117A8 00 Empty Capsules and fill with the Terramycin powder. Each

LEVEL TEA SPOON = 6 CAPSULES

An alternative would be to weighed out the Terramycin powder and mixed with a small amount of water, (about enough for a

swallow), and chased with a glass of water. For children you can take a small glass of water, add the panmycin and a teaspoon

of brown sugar. If the children object to the taste panmycin can also be mixed with a glass of CLUB SODA brought to room

temperature, and swallowed swiftly. If a person starts hearing a ringing sound in the ears decrease dosage. (You will thank your

lucky stars that you purchased the capsule machine and capsule so that this method could be avoided)

 

13.9 TERRAMYCIN SOLUBLE POWDER (Oxytetracycline HCL) may be obtained in quantities from farmers supply

facilities (Quality Farm and Fleet, CO-OP, LANDMARK, etc.). Terramycin is sold for bacterial enteritis and bacterial

pneumonia treatment and states on the label that it is not for human use. However, the terramycin contained in this soluble

powder and that from a pharmacy is identical. It has the advantage of being in a powder form and would not have to be ground

like the Terramycin Scours bolus tablets. However, each level teaspoon provides approximately 200 mg of terramycin

compared to 350 mg per teaspoon for the Terramycin Scours bolus tablets.

 

TERRAMYCIN IS AN EFFECTIVE TREATMENT FOR PLAGUE, CHOLERA, TYPHOID FEVER, ANTHRAX.

Terramycin soluble powder dosage:

(1) once, before you enter an area that you are at a heightened risk of exposure to the above microbes, and once after you have

left that area, if less than 16 hours.

(2) twice daily-for six days, if you have been exposed to the above microbes.

(3) three times daily-for ten days, treatment of infected individuals

(4) four times daily-for ten days, aggressive treatment of severely ill patients.

Dosages determined by body weight, refer to the following chart:

One gram= 0.035 ounce, one ounce= 437,5 grain.

 

 

TERRAMYCIN SOLUBLE POWDER (Oxytetracycline HCL), AN EFFECTIVE TREATMENT

Body weight

teaspoon

ounces

grams

grains

milligrams

10

0.245

0.021

0.061

9.26

87.5

20

0.51

0.042

1.21

18.5

175.0

30

0.75

0.063

1.81

27.76

262.5

40

0.99

0.084

2.41

36.99

350

50

1.24

0.105

3.01

46.2

437.5

60

1.51

0.126

3.62

55.48

525

70

1.75

0.149

4.2

64.75

612.5

80

1.99

0.169

4.8

74.01

700

90

2.26

0.189

5.4

83.3

787.5

100

2.5

0.21

6.0

92.6

875

110

2.75

0.23

6.6

101.7

962.5

120

2.99

0.25

7.02

111

1,050

130

3.26

0.274

7.9

120.2

1,137.5

140

3.5

0.3

8.45

129.5

1,225

150

3.75

0.317

9.1

139

1,312.5

160

4.0

0.338

9.7

148

1,400

170

4.25

0.359

10.33

157.3

1,487.5

180

4.5

0.4

10.9

166.4

1,575

190

4.76

0.41

11.48

175.7

1,662.5

200

5.1

0.42

12.07

184.97

1,750

210

5.25

0.445

12.8

194.25

1,837.5

220

5.4

0.46

13.3

203

1,925

230

5.8

0.487

13.8

212.8

2,012.5

240

6.0

0.5

14.53

222.1

2,100

 

 

 

Take the 118A7 capsule filling machine and insert the 117A8 00 Empty Capsules and fill with the Terramycin powder. Each

LEVEL TEA SPOON = 6 CAPSULES

An alternative would be to weigh out the Terramycin powder and mixed with a small amount of water, (about enough for a

swallow), and chase with a glass of water. For children you can take a small glass of water, add the Terramycin and a teaspoon

of brown sugar. If the children object to the taste Terramycin can also be mixed with a glass of CLUB SODA brought to room

temperature, and swallowed swiftly. If a person starts hearing a ringing sound in the ears decrease dosage. (You will thank your

lucky stars that you purchased the capsule machine and capsule so that this method could be avoided)

13.10 PEN-AQUEOUS (PENICILLIN G PROCAINE), or,

 

AGRI-STREPT (STERILE PENICILLIN G PROCAINE AND DIHYDROSTREPTOMYCIN SULFATE) may be

obtained in quantities from farmers' supply facilities (Quality Farm and Fleet, CO OP, LAND , etc.). A warning on the label

states for animal use only, however this product is identical to that used in hospitals and doctors' offices. When properly used in

the treatment of disease caused by Anthrax, Streptococcus pneumonia, and secondary infections caused by microorganisms

susceptible to Penicillin or Dihydrostreptomycin, most sick individuals that have been treated with these antibiotics show a

noticeable improvement within 36 to 48 hours.

AGRI-STREP comes in a 100 ml multiple dosage sterile vial. This product is ready for immediate injection (for intramuscular

injection only) after the vial is shaken to insure a uniform suspension. Injection is made deep into the buttock muscle, after

making sure the needle is not in a blood vessel (after the needle is inserted, pull out slightly on the syringe, if blood comes into

the syringe, reposition the needle). Before the injection, wash the injection site thoroughly with soap and water and then paint it

with a germicide such as iodine or alcohol. Change the site for each subsequent injection. Rarely do side reactions or so-called

allergic manifestations occur in individuals treated with this antibiotic. If any undesirable reactions are noted, discontinue the use

of this drug immediately.

13.11 AGRI-STREPT OR PEN-AQUEOUS DOSAGE,

 

(1) Once, before you enter an area that you are at a heightened risk of exposure to the above microbes, and once after you

have left that area, if less than 9 hours.

(2) twice daily-for six days, if you have been exposed to anthrax microbes.

(3) three times daily-for ten days, treatment of anthrax-infected individuals

(4) four times daily-for ten days, aggressive treatment of severely ill patients, suffering

from anthrax. May also be used to treat streptococcus pneumonia and pulmonary infections.

Dosage determined by body weight, refer to the following chart

POUNDS OF BODY WEIGHT

0 TO 10 LBS. l.0 ML

10 TO 40 LBS. 2.0 ML

40 TO I 00 LBS. 2.0 TO 5.0 ML

100 TO 200 LB S. 5.0 TO 8.0 ML

200 LBS. OR OVER 8.0 TO 10.0 ML

At the same agriculture story you purchase the AGRI-STREPT you also need to purchase hypodermic syringe's and needles.

These are usually kept under the counter or in a locked cabinet, and some places require you to sign for them, (do not be afraid

of signing for the hypodermic syringe's or needles. However, it is best to buy your entire supply at one time rather than over a

period of time, for they might think you are a junky). Purchase at least one vial of AGRI-STREPT preferably two per family

member under 100 lb. These have a very good shelf life: 2 or 3 years at room temperature, 5 years+ if kept in the refrigerator.

For every family member under 100 lb purchase 20 B-D 5cc syringe with luer lok, part# 309603, and purchase # 40 B-D 2IG

1 .1/4 Precision Guide Needles, part#5166.

For every family member over 100 lb purchase 2 vials of Agri-strep, preferably 3.

For every family member over 100 lb purchase 10- 10 cc syringe's with lur lok, and #20 B-D 21 G I .1 /4 Precision Guide

Needles, part # 5166.

One should purchase and have on hand three glass reusable hypodermic I Occ syringe's and three stainless steel reusable

hypodermic needles 20G x . The needles can be purchased at the same agriculture store where you purchased the

AGRI-STREPT. However, one may need to ask a friendly veterinary to obtain the glass hypodermic syringe, (some old vets

have them laying around and will give them to you). These can be sterilized after each use in a home pressure cooker. Simply

wrap individually each glass syringe and needle with aluminum foil. Place one cup of water in bottom of pressure cooker place

rack in pressure cooker and place syringes and needles on rack. Pressure cook for at least 15 minutes after steam starts to

escape, leave syringes and needles wrapped until just before use. Needles can be sharpened with a nail file before pressure

cooking.

13.12 GIVING AN INJECTION ( Intramuscular, buttock, injection only)

 

(1). If the AGRI-STREPT or PEN-AQUEOUS has been kept in a refrigerator warm it to at least room temperature if time

permits. The top of the AGRI-STREPT or PEN-AQUEOUS vial has a rubber septum covered with a metal disk, remove the

disk.

(2). Shake the agri-strept or pen-aqueous vial several times to thoroughly mix the antibiotics.

(3). If you are using a plastic disposable syringe remove the wrapper, (if using glass remove

aluminum foil), get a hypodermic needle and remove wrapper, (If using reusable remove foil), thread the needle onto the syringe

after removing the plastic cap.

(4). Take the vile of AGRI-STREPT OR PEN-AQUEOUS in one hand and the hypodermic syringe and needle in the other

hand. Push the needle through the septum in the top of the vile, invert the vile and start withdrawing the syringe plunger,

withdraw until slightly more

than called for on the above dosage chart, then withdraw the needle from the vial septum.

(5). If supplies of needles permit and you are using disposable needles, remove the needle

from the syringe and install a new needle ( the first needle was dulled when it was inserted in

the vial septum), the reusable stainless steel needles are stronger and do not dull as quickly.

(6). With the needle upward expel a small amount of the AGRI-STREPT or PEN-AQUEOUS making sure all air bubbles have

been removed, (if there are small air bubbles in the syringe try flicking the syringe with your finger to get the small bubbles to

form into one, then expel it).

(7). With the patient laying down, expose the buttock, pick the highest point (if the patient was laying on his/her stomach) and

with a cotton ball saturated with alcohol start rubbing the skin in a small circular pattern approximately one inch in diameter, for

a full two minutes.

(8). Smartly, insert the needle into the circular pattern you have cleaned at approximately 45 degree angle to almost the full

length of the needle, (a little less in young children).

(9). Pull back slightly on the syringe plunger and notice if any blood appears in the syringe, if it does you have hit a vein and will

have to reposition the needle to a slightly different position.

(10). Push slowly but firmly on the syringe plunger, it will feel stiff but this is normal, until the entire contents of the syringe have

been injected.

(11). Withdraw the needle smartly.

(12). Take an alcohol saturated swab and hold on the injection spot for two full minutes.

(13). If you are using disposable syringes and needles, do not try to re-shield the used needle,

dispose of properly (so that children will not get hold of it). If you are using reusable glass syringe and reusable stainless steel

needles wash thoroughly with hot water, then wrap in aluminum foil and sterilize in a pressure-cooker before reuse.

 

 

 

CHAPTER 14

 

TREATMENT FOR BIOLOGICAL AGENT CASUALTIES

14.1 ESSENTIALS OF UNIVERSAL SAFETY PRECAUTIONS FOR HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS.

(1) Use of appropriate barrier precautions to prevent skin and mucous membranes exposure, including wearing gloves at all

times and masks, goggles, gowns, or aprons if there is a risk of splashes or droplet formation.

(2) Through washing of hands and other skin surfaces after gloves are removed and immediately after any contamination.

(3) Taking special care to avoid injuries with sharp objects such as needles and scalpels.

(4) Use of mouthpieces or other ventilation devices with one-way valves for performing any

resuscitation measures.

(5) Refraining from handling patient care equipment or patients if health-care workers have exudative lesions or weeping

dermatitis.

(6) Very stringent adherence to precautions by pregnant workers.

(7) Through decontamination of any equipment that has been contaminated with any blood or

body fluid before it is repaired or transported.

1. YERSINIA PESTIS(PLAGUE),

 

2. BACILLUS ANTHRACES (ANTHRAX),

 

3. VIBRIO CHOLERA (CHOLERA),

 

4. SALMONELLA TYPHI (TYPHOID FEVER).

These four microorganisms, in this order, would be the most likely candidates for use in a biological attack by a terrorist

organization or nation. And will be the ones that we will concentrate our defense and treatment against. If you've ever had the

flu, you will remember that you were not sure just when or where you were exposed to the disease. Several days after you were

exposed you began to feel sick. Diseases caused by biological agents appear in much the same way - a few days to weeks after

contact with the agent.

14.2 FIRST AID FOR BIOLOGICAL AGENT CASUALTIES

 

If you suspect that you have been exposed to a biological agent, thoroughly scrub your face and hands as soon as the situation

permits. Use plenty of soap (a strong germicidal soap); brush your teeth and gums and then gargle with a hydrogen peroxide

solution made from one ounce of 3% hydrogen peroxide and two ounces pure water. As soon as the situation permits, take a

complete shower, using plenty of warm water and soap. If contaminated, all clothing should be decontaminated at the first

opportunity.

If you suspect that a biological attack has been made, you must be doubly careful of what you eat and drink. Food and water

are the natural homes of many disease producers; eating contaminated food or drinking contaminated water is a sure way of

getting biological agents into your body. If biological agent contamination is STRONGLY SUSPECTED, and you were wearing

your respirator (GAS MASK) YOU MUST AT ONCE DECONTAMINATE THE OUTSIDE OF THE BODY. By taking a

complete shower, using plenty of warm water and soap. If contaminated, all clothing should be decontaminated at the first

opportunity. Take the appropriate antibiotic dosage for your body weight once, after you have left that area where you were at

a heightened risk of exposure to the above microbes, and once more 12 hours later.

If you were not wearing your respirator (GAS MASK) and or you have eaten contaminated food or have been drinking

contaminated water, take a complete shower, using plenty of warm water and soap. If contaminated, all clothing should be

decontaminated at the first opportunity.

YOU MUST AT ONCE DECONTAMINATE THE INSIDE OF THE BODY AS WELL. By taking the appropriate antibiotic dosage for your body weight twice daily for six days, if you have been exposed to above microbes:

14.3 FIRST AID FOR YERSINIA PESTIS (PLAGUE),

 

Remembered that untreated pneumonic plague kills from 98 to 100 percent of its victim, and that untreated intestinal plague kills

99.99 percent of its victims. Once pneumonic or intestinal plague is established, even with aggressive antibiotic therapy, it kills

95 % of its victims. If you are sure that you only breathed in the plague microbes and the only microbes that got into your

intestinal system is those that you breathed in and swallowed, take the appropriate antibiotic dosage for your body weight, twice

daily = for six days,

If you have eaten food or drank water that you "strongly" suspect may have been contaminated with plague and more than 12

hours has elapsed since exposure, take the appropriate antibiotic dosage for your body weight three times daily = for ten days.

4.4 FIRST AID FOR BACILLUS ANTHRACES (ANTHRAX)

 

Remembered that untreated pneumonic anthrax kills from 98 to 100 percent of its victims, and that untreated intestinal anthrax

kills 99.99 percent of its victims. Once pneumonic or intestinal anthrax is established, even with aggressive antibiotic therapy, it

kills 95% of its victims. Assume that the microorganisms have contaminated the patient's lungs and if contaminated food or

water have been consumed, the intestinal tract as well. The following decontamination procedure must be taken at once.

If you are sure that you only breathed in the anthrax microbes and the only microbes that got into your intestinal system are

those that you breathed in and swallowed, and less than six hours has elapsed, take the appropriate antibiotic dosage for your

body weight, twice dally = for six days, if more than six hours has elapsed, take the appropriate antibiotic for your body weight,

three times daily = for ten days.

If you have eaten food or drank water that you "strongly" suspect may have been contaminated with anthrax microbes and less

than 6 hours has elapsed since exposure, take the appropriate antibiotic dosage for your body weight, three times daily = for ten

days. If more than 6 hours has elapsed since exposure, four times daily = for ten days.

14.5 FIRST AID FOR VIBRIO CHOLERA (CHOLERA)

 

Remembered that untreated cholera kills from 45 to 55 percent of its victim. Assume that the microorganisms have contaminated the patient's intestinal tract and the following decontamination procedure must be taken at once.

If you have eaten food or drank water that you "strongly" suspect may have been contaminated with cholera microbes and less

than 6 hours has elapsed since exposure, take the appropriate antibiotic dosage for your body weight, two times daily = for six

days. If more than 6 hours has elapsed since exposure, three times daily = for ten days.

If you come down with cholera, use the calf electrolyte formula mixed in water at a rate of 1quart per 80 pounds of body weight

34 times per day for 2 days. For the following 2 days the solution should be diluted 1:1 with milk.

 

 

14.6 FIRST AID FOR SALMONELLA TYPHI (TYPHOID FEVER)

 

Remembered that untreated Typhoid fever kills from 5 to 10 percent of its victims. If you only suspect that you have drank

water or eaten food contaminated with salmonella typhi and less than 6 hours has elapsed since exposure, take the appropriate

antibiotic dosage for your body weight, two times daily = for four days. If more than 6 hours has elapsed since exposure, three

times daily = for six days.

 

 

CHAPTER 15

 

 

If a person gets a disease from a biological agent, in spite of the preventive measures taken, the following procedures should be

followed:

Essentials of universal safety precautions for health care providers:

(1) Use of appropriate barrier precautions to prevent skin and mucous membranes exposure, including wearing gloves at all

times and masks, goggles, gowns, or aprons if there is a risk of splashes or droplet formation.

(2) Through washing of hands and other skin surfaces after gloves are removed and immediately after any contamination.

(3) Taking special care to avoid injuries with sharp objects such as needles and scalpels.

(4) Use of mouthpieces or other ventilation devices with one-way valves for performing any

 

resuscitation measures.

(5) Refraining from handling patient care equipment or patients if health-care workers have exudative lesions or weeping

dermatitis.

(6) Very stringent adherence to precautions by pregnant workers.

(7) Through decontamination of any equipment that has been contaminated with any blood or

 

body fluid before it is repaired or transported.

 

 

 

15.1 YERSINIA PESTIS (PLAGUE) - SYLVATIC PLAGUE (SPREAD BY INFECTED FLEAS, BED BUGS, LICE)

 

Once in humans, cells of Y pestis usually travel to the lymph nodes, where they cause the formation of swollen areas referred to

as buboes, for this reason the disease is frequently referred to as bubonic plague. The buboes become filled with Y pestis, but

the distinct capsule on cells of Y pestis prevent them from being phagocytized. Secondary buboes form in peripheral lymph

nodes and cells eventually enter the bloodstream, causing generalized septicemia. Multiple hemorrhages produce dark splotches

on the skin. If not treated prior to the bacteremia stage, the symptoms of plague, including extreme lymph node pain, prostration, shock, and delirium, usually cause death within 3 to 5 days.

TREATMENT

(1) STRICT BED REST, keep the patient warm.

(2) If the patient was bitten on the legs a bubo will usually form in the groin, with the patient

laying on their back look for a raised area usually one to one and one half inch and usually 3 inches left or right of the

reproductive organs (penis/vagina). The patient will be experiencing extreme pain in this area.

(3) If the patient was bitten on the fingers or hands the bubo will form in the arm pit. With the patient laying on their back look

for a one to one and one half inch raised area. The patient will be experiencing extreme pain in this area.

(4) If the disease has progressed to this stage, the bubo must be aspirated!

MEDICAL SUPPLIES NEEDED

(a) One glass or plastic hypodermic syringe & needles.

(b) Bottle of strong antiseptic (Iodine or alcohol).

© Cotton ball or small piece of clean cloth.

(d) Latex exam gloves.

 

 

PROCEDURE

(A) First, put on a pair of latex exam gloves then thoroughly clean the surface of the bubo

with a strong antiseptic.

(B) Second, take the hypodermic needle & syringe and insert the needle into the top of the bubo, pulling back on the syringe

plunger as you do. (If you are using a needle you should not go in too deep). This will reduce the pressure in the bubo and

also reduce the pain. In addition, this could prevent the bacteria from entering the blood stream. This aspirated material is highly

infectious, treat it accordingly! Dispose of material to be removed from a glass hypodermic syringe by slowly injecting the

aspirated material into a container of household bleach. Plastic disposable hypodermic syringe and needle should be incinerated.

© Start aggressive treatment with Terramycin or Panmycin.

PNEUMONIC PLAGUE

This occurs when cells of Y pestis are either inhaled directly or reach the lungs during bubonic plague. Symptoms are usually

absent until the last day or two of the disease when large amounts of bloody sputum are emitted. Untreated cases rarely survive

more than 2 days. Pneumonic plague, as one might expect, is a highly contagious disease, and can spread rapidly via the

respiratory route if infected individuals are not immediately quarantined.

TREATMENT

(1) Immediately quarantine.

(2) Put on your respirator, at once.

(3) Put a surgical mask on the patient (to help prevent spread of microbes).

(4) Start aggressive treatment with terramycin or panmycin.

SEPTICEMIC PLAGUE

This involves the rapid spread of Y pestis throughout the body without the formation of buboes, and usually causes death

before a diagnosis can be made.

 

15.2 BACILLUS ANTHRACES (ANTHRAX)

 

 

Anthrax may appear in three forms in man - cutaneous, pulmonary, and intestinal. The cutaneous or skin form is characterized

by carbuncles (boils) and swelling at the site of infection. Sometimes this local infection will develop into a systemic infection.

The pulmonary form is an infection of the lungs contracted by inhalation of the spores. The intestinal form is contracted by eating

contaminated food or insufficiently cooked meat of infected animals.

MEDICAL SUPPLIES NEEDED

(1) One vial of agri-strept per patient.

(2) Glass reusable or plastic disposable hypodermic syringe & needles,

(3) One bottle strong antiseptic.

(4) Cotton balls.

(5) Latex exam gloves.

 

TREATMENT of CUTANEOUS Anthrax (malignant pustule). The mortality of untreated cutaneous anthrax ranges up to 25%

and is the most commonly found in individuals who have been exposed to a biological attack and who were wearing their

respirator but were not wearing an adequate protective garment, (tyvek sack suite). Infection is initiated by the entrance of

bacilli through an abrasion of the skin. A pustule usually appears on the hands or forearms. The bacilli are readily recognized

under a microscope from the serosanguineous discharge.

(1) STRICT BED REST, keep the patient warm.

(2) Aggressive treatment with Agri-Strept, (penicillin is the drug of choice for treatment).

 

(TERRAMYCIN OR PANMYCIN may be used with people who are allergic to penicillin).

TREATMENT of PULMONARY Anthrax. The mortality rate in untreated pulmonary anthrax is almost 100%. This is the

primary form of the disease found in individuals who were not wearing their respirator during an biological attack and breathed

in the spores. The bacilli may be found in large numbers in the sputum if viewed under a microscope. If not properly treated, this

form progresses to fatal septicemia.

(1) STRICT BED REST, keep the patient warm.

(2) Aggressive treatment with Agri-Strept, (penicillin is the drug of choice for treatment).

 

TREATMENT of GASTROINTESTINAL Anthrax. This is the most severe form of anthrax. The mortality rate in untreated

gastrointestinal anthrax is 100%.. The bacilli or spores are swallowed, thus initiating intestinal infection. The organisms may be

isolated from the patient's stools.

(1) STRICT BED REST, keep the patient warm.

(2) Aggressive treatment with Agri-Strept, (penicillin is the drug of choice for treatment).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15.3 VIBRIO CHOLERA (CHOLERA)

 

Cholera, an acute infectious gastrointestinal disease, is characterized by sudden onset with nausea, vomiting, profuse watery

diarrhea with "rice-water" appearance, rapid loss of body fluids, toxemia, and frequent collapse. The mortality rate in untreated

cholera is almost 50%. This is the primary form of the disease found in individuals who were not wearing their respirator during

an biological attack and breathed in and swallowed the microorganisms, or who drank contaminated water or eaten contaminated food.

MEDICAL MATERIALS NEEDED

(1) Minimum of 30 packs of ANCHOR ORAL REHYDRATION, Calf Rehydration Powder

per person, or 30 packs of BIOLYTE Calf-Electrolyte Formula.

(2) One quart container.

TREATMENT The first consideration in the treatment of cholera is to replenish fluid and mineral losses of the body. This can be

accomplished by taking either BIOLYTE or ANCHOR Calf rehydration powder, (although the package says that it is not for

human use is in fact the same formula used in hospitals through out India), and dissolving one package in one quart of known

pure water (distilled or boiled water cooled to room temperature). Administer the solution by feeding at the rate of 1 quart per

80 pounds body weight 3-4 times daily for 4 days as the only source of oral fluids. Drug therapy has little or no effect upon the

clinical course of the disease. However, terramycin, given by mouth, causes rapid disappearance of the vibrio organisms, thus

reducing the spread of the disease.

15.4 SALMONELLA TYPHOSA (TYPHOID FEVER)

 

Typhoid fever is a systemic infection characterized by continued fever, lymphoid tissue involvement, ulceration of the intestines,

enlargement of the spleen, rose-colored spots on the skin, diarrhea, and constitutional disturbances. The mortality in untreated

cases range from 0 to 10 percent. This is the primary form of the disease found in individuals who were not wearing their

respirator during an biological attack and breathed in and swallowed the microorganisms, or who drank contaminated water or

eaten contaminated, food.

TREATMENT

(1) Bed rest. Keep patient warm.

(2) Give no solid food, and only broths, (ulceration of the intestines).

(3) Salmonella infections are self-limiting and should not be treated with antibiotics as

 

treatment may encourage development of carrier state. If treatment is warranted, ampicillin or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazol is

the drug of choice and should only be used for life-threatening illness.

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 17 WATER SUPPLIES

 

 

Bacillus Anthraces: The spores are very stable and may remain alive for many years in water.

Vibrio Cholera: The organism will survive up to 24 hours in sewage, and as long as 6 weeks in certain types of impure water

containing salt and organic matter.

Yersinia Pestis (Plague): The organism will remain viable in water from 2 to 30 days, at near freezing temperatures, it will

remain alive for months

Salmonella typhosa: The organism remains viable for 2 to 3 weeks in water, up to 3 months in ice and snow.

 

17-1 WATER AND SALT REQUIREMENTS.

 

In a well organized terrorist attack, this country's electric power grid would make a very tempting target to be attacked in

conjunction with wide spread germ attacks. By taking out only a small number of critical components (to which there now is no

backups) electric power could be disrupted for from weeks to months. In modem day North America 90%-97% of modern

homes depend on electricity for maintaining a constant supply of fresh water. Painful thirst has been experienced by very few

Americans. We take for granted that we will always have enough water to drink. Most of us think of "food and water" in that

order, when we think of survival essentials that should be stored. But if unprepared citizens were confronted with a long term

electrical power outage, they soon would realize that they should have given first priority to storing adequate water.

For the kidneys to eliminate waste products effectively, the average person needs to drink enough water so that he urinates at

least one pint each day. (When water is not limited, most people drink enough to urinate 2 pints. Additional water is lost in

perspiration, exhaled breath, and excrement.) Under cool conditions, a person could survive for weeks on 3 pints of water a

day- if he eats but little food and if that food is low in protein. Four to five quarts of g water per day are essential in very hot

weather, with none allowed for washing. At least 15 gallons per person should be stored. This amount usually would provide for

some water remaining after two weeks, to prevent thirst in case additional fresh water was still difficult to obtain. When one is

sweating heavily and not eating salty food, salt deficiency symptoms - especially cramping - are likely to develop within a few

days. to prevent this, 6 or 8 grams of salt (about oz., or tablespoon) should be consumed daily in food and drink. If little

or no food is eaten, this small daily salt ration should be added to drinking water. Under hot conditions, a little salt makes water

taste better.

 

17.2 DISINFECTING WATER

 

Boiling for 20 minutes is required to kill Plague, Cholera, Typhoid microbes, boiling for two hours is required to kill Anthrax

spores. Any household bleach solution, such as Clorox, that contains sodium hypochlorite as its only active ingredient may be

used as a source of chlorine for disinfecting. The amount of sodium hypochlorite usually 5.25%, is printed on the labial. (In

recent years, perhaps as a precaution against drinking undiluted chlorine bleach solution, some household bleach containers

show a warning such as "Not For Personal Use," This warning can be safely disregarded if the label states that the bleach

contains only sodium hypochlorite as its active ingredient, and in only the small quantities specified in these and other instructions

are used to disinfect water). Add 1 scant teaspoon to each 10 gallons of clear water, and stir. Add 2 scant teaspoonfuls if the

water is muddy or colored. Wait at least 30 minutes before drinking, to allow enough time for the chlorine to kill all the

microorganisms. Properly disinfected water should have a slight chlorine odor. To disinfect small quantities of water, put 2

drops of household bleach containing 5.25% sodium hypochlorite in each quart of clear water.

Use 4 drops if the water is muddy or colored. If a dropper is not available, use a spoon and a square - ended strip of paper or

thin cloth about inch wide by 2 inches long. Put the strip in the spoon with an end hanging down about inch beyond the

end of the spoon. When bleach is placed in the spoon and the spoon is carefully tipped, drops in the size of those from a

medicine dropper will drip off the end of the strip. As a second choice, 2% tincture of iodine can be used. Add 5 drops to each

quart of clear water and let stand 30 minutes. If the water is cloudy, add 10 drops to each quart. Commercial water purification

tablets should be used as directed.

 

17.3 SOURCES OF WATER

 

 

Before a supply of stored drinking water has been exhausted, other sources should be located. The main water sources are

given below, with the safest source listed first and the other sources listed in decreasing order of safety.

1. Water from deep wells and from water tanks and covered reservoirs into which no microbes have been introduced. (Caution:

Although most spring water would be safe, some spring water is surface water that has flowed into and through underground

channels without having been filtered.)

2. Water from covered seepage pits or shallow hand-dug wells. This water is safe IF germ aerosols or germ-contaminated

surface water has been prevented from entering by the use of waterproofing coverings and by waterproofing the surrounding

ground to keep water from running down the outside well casing.

3. Contaminated water from deep lakes. Water from a deep lake would be less contaminated by germ-aerosols than water

from a shallow pond would be, if both had the same area deposited on them. Furthermore, germ-aerosols, germ spores settle to

the bottom more rapidly in deep lakes than in shallow ponds, which are agitated more by wind.

4. Contaminated water from shallow ponds and other shallow, still water.

5. Contaminated water from streams, which would be especially dangerous if the stream is

 

muddy from the first heavy rains after the germ attack. The first run off will contain most of the germs that can be washed off the

drainage area. Run off after the first few heavy rains following the deposit of germ-aerosols is not likely to contain much deadly

germs or germ spores.

6. Water collected from germ aerosols-contaminated roofs. This would contain more germs than would run off from the ground.

7. Water obtained by melting snow that has fallen through air containing germ aerosols, or snow lying on the ground onto which

germ-aerosols has fallen. Avoid using such water for drinking or cooking, if possible.

17.4 WATER FROM WELLS The wells of farms and rural homes would be the best sources of water for millions of survivors.

Following a massive Germ Warfare attack in which the electrical power grid was also targeted by concentrating attacks on

power stations, transformers, and transmission lines. The electric pumps and the pipes in wells usually would be useless.

However, enough people would know how to remove these pipes and pumps from wells so that bail-cans could be used to

reach the water and bring up enough for drinking and basic hygiene. A very good bailer can be obtained from:

Lehman's Hardware and Appliance.

One Lehman Circle, PO Box 41

Kidron, Ohio 44636 (USA) Phone 1-216-857-557 for around $27.

One should also obtain about 200-300 feet of good strong nylon rope.(parachute cord is one

of the lightest and strongest).

 

 

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